The medieval church was founded on and governed by concepts of faith and trust--but not in the way that is popularly assumed. Offering a radical new interpretation of the institutional church and its social consequences in England, Ian Forrest argues that between 1200 and 1500 the ability of bishops to govern depended on the cooperation of local people known as trustworthy men and shows how the combination of inequality and faith helped make the medieval church. Trustworthy men (in Latin, viri fidedigni) were jurors, informants, and witnesses who represented their parishes when bishops needed local knowledge or reliable collaborators. Their importance in church courts, at inquests, and during visitations grew enormously between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. The church had to trust these men, and this trust rested on the complex and deep-rooted cultures of faith that underpinned promises and obligations, personal reputation and identity, and belief in God. But trust also had a dark side. For the church to discriminate between the trustworthy and untrustworthy was not to identify the most honest Christians but to find people whose status ensured their word would not be contradicted. This meant men rather than women, and—usually—the wealthier tenants and property holders in each parish. Trustworthy Men illustrates the ways in which the English church relied on and deepened inequalities within late medieval society, and how trust and faith were manipulated for political ends.
This unique guide book explains and teaches the concept of trustworthy compilers based on 50+ years of worldwide experience in the area of compilers, and on the author’s own 30+ years of expertise in development and teaching compilers. It covers the key topics related to compiler development as well as compiling methods not thoroughly covered in other books. The book also reveals many state-of-the-art compiler development tools and personal experience of their use in research projects by the author and his team. Software engineers of commercial companies and undergraduate/graduate students will benefit from this guide.
This volume contains papers presented at the International Conference on Software Process (ICSP 2009) held in Vancouver, Canada, during May 16-17, 2009. ICSP 2009 was the third conference of the ICSP series, continuing the software process workshops from 25 years ago. The theme of ICSP 2009 was “Processes to Develop Trustworthy Software.” Software development takes place in a dynamic context of frequently changing technologies and limited resources. Teams worldwide are under increasing pressure to deliver trustworthy software products more quickly and with higher levels of quality. At the same time, global competition is forcing software development organizations to cut costs by rationalizing processes, outsourcing part or all of their activities, re- ing existing software in new or modified applications and evolving existing systems to meet new needs, while still minimizing the risk of projects failing to deliver. To address these difficulties, new or modified processes are emerging including lean and agile methods, plan-based product line development, and increased integration with systems engineering processes. Papers present research and real-world experience in many areas of software and systems processes impacting trustworthy software including: new software devel- ment approaches; software quality; integrating software and business processes; CMMI and other process improvement initiatives; simulation and modeling of so- ware processes; techniques for software process representation and analysis; and process tools and metrics.
Trustworthiness is a key success factor in the acceptance and adoption of cyber-physical systems. The author first discusses various existing definitions of trust and trustworthiness and extends them to cyber-physical systems. A comprehensive framework is proposed, including methods that cover all phases of development: requirements engineering, system design, trustworthiness evaluation, run-time maintenance, and evidence-based assurance. To support a smooth integration of the methods into development projects, these methods are provided in the form of so-called capability patterns. A running example from the ambient assisted living domain is used to demonstrate the application of the methods. About the Author: Nazila Gol Mohammadi is currently working as an associate researcher at paluno – The Ruhr Institute for Software Technology in Essen, Germany. Her research interests include software engineering, requirements engineering, digitalization, cloud computing, cyber-physical systems, and trustworthiness of software systems.
We become untrustworthy when we break our promises, miss our deadlines, or offer up unreliable information. If we aim to be a trustworthy person, we need to act in line with our existing commitments and we must also take care not to bite off more than we can chew when new opportunities come along. But often it is not clear what we will be able to manage, what obstacles may prevent us from keeping our promises, or what changes may make our information unreliable. In the face of such uncertainties, trustworthiness typically directs us towards caution and hesitancy, and away from generosity, spontaneity, or shouldering burdens for others. In How To Be Trustworthy, Katherine Hawley explores what trustworthiness means in our lives and the dilemmas which arise if we value trustworthiness in an uncertain world. She argues there is no way of guaranteeing a clean conscience. We can become untrustworthy by taking on too many commitments, no matter how well-meaning we are, yet we can become bad friends, colleagues, parents, or citizens if we take on too few commitments. Hawley shows that we can all benefit by being more sensitive to obstacles to trustworthiness, and recognising that those who live in challenging personal circumstances face greater obstacles than other members of society--whether visibly or invisibly disadvantaged through material poverty, poor health, social exclusion, or power imbalances.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Standard Conference on Trustworthy Distributed Computing and Services, ISCTCS 2013, held in Beijing, China, in November 2013. The 49 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 267 papers. The topics covered are trustworthy infrastructure; security, survivability and fault tolerance; standards, evaluation and certification; trustworthiness of services.
Building Trustworthy Digital Repositories: Theory and Implementation combines information on both theory and practice related to creating trustworthy repositories for records into one up-to-date source. This book will bring all the credible theories into one place where they will be summarized, brought up to date, and footnoted. Moreover, the book will be international in its scope, and will discuss ideas coming from such important sources as Australia, Canada, and Western Europe. Until about five years ago, there were very few implementation projects in this area. This book brings together information on implementation projects that answer these questions: What is a trustworthy repository for digital records? Who is building these repositories, and what have been the results? How are institutions building or creating these repositories? How are institutions addressing the essential requirement related to the ingest or capture of records? How are institutions automatically and manually capturing essential metadata and audit trails? How are institutions implementing retention and disposal decisions within these systems? How are institutions implementing preservation strategies to ensure that digital objects are accessible over long periods of time? What is the current status of trustworthy repositories, and what will these systems look like in the future?
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed conference proceedings of the First International Workshop on the Foundation of Trustworthy AI - Integrating Learning, Optimization and Reasoning, TAILOR 2020, held virtually in September 2020, associated with ECAI 2020, the 24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence. The 11 revised full papers presented together with 6 short papers and 6 position papers were reviewed and selected from 52 submissions. The contributions address various issues for Trustworthiness, Learning, reasoning, and optimization, Deciding and Learning How to Act, AutoAI, and Reasoning and Learning in Social Contexts.
This book treats the computational use of social concepts as the focal point for the realisation of a novel class of socio-technical systems, comprising smart grids, public display environments, and grid computing. These systems are composed of technical and human constituents that interact with each other in an open environment. Heterogeneity, large scale, and uncertainty in the behaviour of the constituents and the environment are the rule rather than the exception. Ensuring the trustworthiness of such systems allows their technical constituents to interact with each other in a reliable, secure, and predictable way while their human users are able to understand and control them. "Trustworthy Open Self-Organising Systems" contains a wealth of knowledge, from trustworthy self-organisation mechanisms, to trust models, methods to measure a user's trust in a system, a discussion of social concepts beyond trust, and insights into the impact open self-organising systems will have on society.
The Future Internet envisions a move toward widespread use of services as a way of networked interaction. However, while the technologies for developing and deploying services are well established, methods for ensuring trust and security are fewer and less mature. Lack of trust and confidence in composed services and in their constituent parts is reckoned to be one of the significant factors limiting widespread uptake of service-oriented computing. This state-of-the-art survey illustrates the results of the Aniketos – Secure and Trustworthy Composite Services – project (funded under the EU 7th Research Framework Programme). The papers included in the book describe the solutions developed during the 4-year project to establish and maintain trustworthiness and secure behavior in a constantly changing service environment. They provide service developers and providers with a secure service development framework that includes methods, tools, and security services supporting the design-time creation and run-time composition of secure dynamic services, where both the services and the threats are evolving. The 16 chapters are organized in the following thematic sections: state of the art of secure and trustworthy composite services; the Aniketos platform; design-time support framework; run-time support framework; and case studies and evaluation.
For many years now, cryptography has been keeping messages secure for senders, irrespective of the routing to the destination. This same technology can be used to keep votes secure for voters, from the casting of the vote all the way through to the inclusion of the vote in the final tally. This state-of-the-art survey addresses the challenges faced in establishing a trustworthy electronic voting system. The 24 contributions included in the volume were carefully reviewed and selected from the presentations given during a series of workshops on trustworthy elections held over the last decade. Topics addresses range from foundational and theoretical aspects to algorithms and systems issues, as well as applications in various fields.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Trust and Trustworthy Computing, TRUST 2011, held in Pittsburgh, PA, USA in June 2011. The 23 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are organized in technical sessions on cloud and virtualization, physically unclonable functions, mobile device security, socio-economic aspects of trust, hardware trust, access control, privacy, trust aspects of routing, and cryptophysical protocols.