This volume collects eight essays that all attempt to answer two key concerns: did markets for seafarers exist in the age of sail; and, if so, were these markets efficient? The question was initially approach by Charles Kindleberger, who claims a market is efficient if it permits free access for employer and employee, is supply and demand match balance so that wages increase, and that labour must command the same price across the market. The first four focus on the broadly defined early-modern period, and all agree on the existence of the markets but are divided over whether or not they are efficient. The second section asks the same questions of the nineteenth century, and receives similar answers. All of the essays take issue with the definition and application of the term ‘efficiency’ when approaching their conclusions. Each author is considered an expert within their field, and all base their research on the North Atlantic. Section 1: These essays focus on the early-modern period of maritime history. Carla Rahn Phillips considers the market for maritime labour in early-modern Spain, finding that despite the necessity of sailors and existence of the market, wages remained low and skilled maritime labourers did not have bargaining power, rendering the system inefficient. Vince Walsh examines Salem, Massachusetts, and finds that the market within Salem was efficient yet would only recruit within Salem and suffered as a result. Paul van Royen focusses on seventeenth and eighteenth century Netherlands, and finds the organisations functioned well but enable huge discrepancies in wages. David Starkey chose eighteenth century England, noting a fluctuation between efficiency and inefficiency across markets. All authors find their work linked by the prevalence of these markets and their own difficulties in determining ‘efficiency’ within these economies. Section 2: These essays focus on the maritime history of the nineteenth century. David Williams discusses the emergence on the advance note and the tremendous influence it had on market behaviour, indicating inefficient markets. Yrjo Kaukiainen considers Finland’s history of interconnected local maritime labour markets, but also struggles to quantify their ‘efficiency’ after also taking issue with the ambiguous phrase. Lewis R. Fischer addresses the imbalance of wages in Norwegian maritime markets and finds that despite the integration from local to regional markets, the system remained inefficient. Finally, Morten Hahn-Pedersen and Poul Holm consider the fishing and shipping markets in Denmark and believe the wage inconsistencies reflect an inefficient system.
This collection provides a tribute to the career of maritime historian Yrjö Kaukiainen, composed upon his retirement from the University of Helsinki. It collects seventeen of his maritime essays written in English, reprinted in order to celebrate his career and impact on the field of maritime history. The selected essays encompass the following themes: maritime Finland; maritime labour; sail, steam, coal, and canvas; the timber-trade; maritime communication and networks; ship measurement and shipping statistics; the economics of merchant shipping; managerial skills in Finnish merchant fleets; and international freight markets. The collection primarily concerns Finnish shipping, and the maritime relationships between Finland and the wider international community, including the British timber-trade, the wider Baltic timber-trade, and Dutch shipping in relation to the Swedish Navigation Act. The essays are prefaced by three tributes of Kaukiainen’s career, penned by Lars U. Scholl, Merja-Liisa Hinkkanen, and Lewis R. Fischer, respectively. The volume concludes with a bibliography of Kaukiainen’s work on maritime history, in both Swedish and English, from 1981 to 2003.
This book explores the historical evolution of a Mediterranean village that radically changed its core self-sustaining activities in less than a century, from fishing for anchovies in the Ligurian Sea to rounding Cape Horn.
This volume collects a series of reports from maritime historians across Europe, aiming to provide a coherent historical trajectory of the lives of European sailors and their dealings with the maritime labour market; the reports were presented at The Hague’s 1994 conference, ’European Sailors, 1570-1870.’ The core areas discussed in the first half of the volume include: the national maritime labour market; the international maritime labour market; working conditions for sailors; and career patterns. The second half features reports detailing the sailing history of a selection European countries:- the Netherlands; England; Scotland; Britain as a whole; Iceland; Norway; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Belgium; France; and Spain. Each report responds to a set of questions distributed by the commissioning editors, so that the data from each country can be compared and contrasted. Questions considered include the number of sailors represented in the navy, mercantile, marine, or whaling industries; the socio-economic background of sailors; wage details; recruitment policies; strikes; mutinies; and career mobility amongst sailors. The volume provides an overview of the history of sailors to enable a strengthening of data in the field of maritime history as it continues to develop and extend.
This book presents twelve essays by historian David M. Williams, in order to pay tribute to his career. The essays stretch from 1807 through to the end of the nineteenth century, and address both economic and social themes. Topics include maritime trade, deployment of merchant ships, the state regulations concerning shipping, shipwrecks and loss of life, passenger cargoes, slavery, cotton, timber and coffee trades, and the working conditions of seamen over the course of the century. The plight of the maritime labourer is at the core of this collection. The essays primarily focus on British shipping, and firmly places it within an international context. The book is introduced by Lars U. Scholl, followed by two tributes to Williams’ career, one by Peter N. Davies, the other by Lewis R. Fischer. Scholl concludes the volume with a thorough bibliography of Williams’ maritime writings: books, chapters, and articles.
Maritime transport has been the main driver of trade growth, and the emergence and development of a global economy. This collection of essays from distinguished economists and historians takes an international and comparative perspective, covering topics ranging from technological advance and the role of the state to maritime business development.
This book explores the tenuous existence of seafarers, divided between their time on the ocean and their residence in sailortown economies geared to exploit them. Particular attention is given both to the contribution of seafarers as a global workforce into the nineteenth century, and to their help in creating vibrant multicultural enclaves in port cities worldwide. In addition, research explores the scandalized opinions of outside observers, challenging ideas about public behavior and relationships. Sailortown myths persisted far into the twentieth century, to the detriment of older waterfront districts and their residents, and readers will find this book is invaluable in casting new light on forgotten communities, whose lives bridged urban, maritime and global histories.
This book collects seventeen previously published essays by John Armstrong concerning the British coastal trade. Armstrong is a leading maritime historian and the essays provided here offer a thorough exploration of the British coastal trade, his specialisation, during the period of industrialisation and technological development that would lead to modern shipping. The purpose is to demonstrate the whether or not the coastal trade was the main carrier of internal trade and a pioneer of the technical developments that modernised the shipping industry. Each essay makes an original contribution to the field and covers a broad range of topics, including the fluctuating importance of the coastal trade and size of the coastal fleet over time; the relationship between coastal shipping, canals, and railways; a comparison between the coastal liner and coastal tramp trade; the significance of the river Thames in enabling trade; coastal trade economics; maritime freight rates; the early twentieth century shipping depression; competition between coastal liner companies; and a detailed study of the role of the government in coastal shipping. The book also contains case studies of the London coal trade; coastal trade through the River Dee port; and the Liverpool-Hull trade route. It contains a foreword, introduction, and bibliography of Armstrong’s writings. There is no overall conclusion, except the assertion that coastal shipping plays a tremendous role in British maritime history, and a call for further research into the field.
This remarkable work is a comprehensive historiographical and bibliographical survey of the most important scholarly and printed materials about the naval and maritime history of England and Great Britain from the earliest times to 1815. More than 4,000 popular, standard and official histories, important articles in journals and periodicals, anthologies, conference, symposium and seminar papers, guides, documents and doctoral theses are covered so that the emphasis is the broadest possible. But the work is far, far more than a listing. The works are all evaluated, assessed and analysed and then integrated into an historical narrative that makes the book a hugely useful reference work for student, scholar, and enthusiast alike. It is divided into twenty-one chapters which cover resource centres, significant naval writers, pre-eminent and general histories, the chronological periods from Julius Caesar through the Vikings, Tudors and Stuarts to Nelson and Bligh, major naval personalities, warships, piracy, strategy and tactics, exploration, discovery and navigation, archaeology and even naval fiction. Quite simply, no-one with an interest and enthusiasm for naval history can afford to be without this book at their side.
Ultimately, Sailing School helps us to rethink the relationship among maritime history, the Scientific Revolution, and the rise of print culture during a period of unparalleled innovation and global expansion.
The British Royal Navy of the French Wars (1793–1815) is an enduring national symbol, but we often overlook the tens of thousands of foreign seamen who contributed to its operations. Foreign Jack Tars presents the first in-depth study of their employment in the Navy during this crucial period. Based on sources from across Britain, Europe, and the US, and blending quantitative, social, cultural, economic, and legal history, it challenges the very notions of 'Britishness' and 'foreignness'. The need for manpower during wartime meant that naval recruitment regularly bypassed cultural prejudice, and even legal status. Temporarily outstripped by practical considerations, these categories thus revealed their artificiality. The Navy was not simply an employer in the British maritime market, but a nodal point of global mobility. Exposing the inescapable transnational dimensions of a quintessentially national institution, the book highlights the instability of national boundaries, and the compromises and contradictions underlying the power of modern states.