Authored by two longtime researchers in tobacco science, The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke, Second Edition chronicles the progress made from late 2008 through 2011 by scientists in the field of tobacco science. The book examines the isolation and characterization of each component. It explores developments in pertinent analytical
The present volume comprises a compilation of papers pre sented as a Symposium on the Chemical Composition of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke during a meeting of the American Chemical Society in Washington, D. C., September 12-17, 1971. The Symposium was organized so as to cover, in the time allotted, those aspects of tobacco research that are both per tinent and relevant to the most demanding problem facing research ers in the field today--that is the development of a less hazard ous cigarette. The path to such an objective, however, is still rather long and not easily traversed. For example, in identifying the hazard associated with smok ing, one must first know something of the chemical composition of tobacco smoke, and moreover, how the smoke components arise from the various leaf components. In addition, bioassays of smoke fractions and components therein are necessary to identify noxlous substances, and to correlate biological activity with chemical composition. Finally, to achieve the stated objective, methods need to be developed for removing the identified hazards from the smoke--whether they be by specially cultivating tobacco plants, or by modifying tobacco smoke through the use of filters, additives or similar devices.
The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke chronicles the extraordinary progress made by scientists in the field of tobacco science, from its beginnings in the early 1800s to the present. This comprehensive text provides over 6000 references on more than 8400 components identified in tobacco and tobacco smoke.Authored by two longtime rese
Authored by two longtime researchers in tobacco science, The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke, Second Edition chronicles the progress made from late 2008 through 2011 by scientists in the field of tobacco science. The book examines the isolation and characterization of each component. It explores developments in pertinent analytical technology and results of experimental studies on biological activity, toxicity, and tumorigenicity, including the inhibition of adverse biological activity of one specific tobacco smoke component by another tobacco smoke component. Adding to the progress reported in the First Edition, the comprehensive Second Edition provides nearly 7,000 references on almost 9,600 components. The authors discuss the controversies over the extrapolation of the biological effect of a specific component administered individually by one route versus its biological effect when the component is in a highly complex mixture and is administered by a different route. They also cite studies in which cigarette design technologies were developed to control the per-cigarette mainstream smoke yield of Federal Trade Commission–defined tar and one or more specific tobacco smoke components of concern. New in the Second Edition: Approximately 1,000 newly reported components have been inserted and several dozen duplicates have been deleted from various tables and from the Alphabetical Index Improved and sharper chemical structures Insertion of new pertinent references for the components in each of the major chapter tables devoted to a particular functional component Updated Index organized by the CAS Registry Number listing of the components Updated discussions in the Introduction and at the beginning of each chapter A searchable companion CD-ROM containing the 350-page alphabetical Component Index Authors Alan Rodgman and Thomas A. Perfetti were jointly awarded the 2010 CORESTA (Cooperative Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco) Prize for their extensive work on documenting the vast literature on the chemical composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke in their original edition.
Smoking causes and contributes to a large number of human diseases, yet due to the large number of potentially hazardous compounds in cigarette smoke -- almost 5,000 chemicals have been identified, establishing the link between smoking and disease has often proved difficult. This unbiased and scientifically accurate overview of current knowledge begins with an overview of the chemical constituents in cigarette smoke, their fate in the human body, and their documented toxic effects on various cells and tissues. Recent results detailing the many ways components of cigarette smoke adversely affect human health are also presented, highlighting the role of smoking in cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious and other diseases. A final chapter discusses current strategies for the treatment and prevention of smoking-induced illness. Despite the obvious importance of the topic, this is the first comprehensive reference on tobacco smoke toxicity, making for essential reading for all toxicologists and healthcare professionals dealing with smoking-related diseases.
Originally published in 1992, this volume looks in depth at the carcinogenic properties of N-nitroso compounds. These compounds occur widely in smoked foods and in meat and fish cured with nitrates; they are also formed in some industrial processes and in addition are found in cosmetics, tobacco and tobacco smoke. By focusing on the chemical and biological properties, the volume attempts to explain how these compounds exert their carcinogenic potential and, furthermore, goes on to explain how apparently harmless precursors such as nitrates and amines are transformed to produce carcinogens.
This book is a compilation of observations to date on the properties of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and on concentrations of its constituents in indoor air. It focuses on common natural indoor environments and environments associated with chronic exposure. Attention is also given to measurement methods and to competing sources of indoor air contaminants commonly attributed to ETS.
A volume in the Emerging Issues in Analytical Chemistry series, Analytical Assessment of E-Cigarettes: From Contents to Chemical and Particle Exposure Profiles addresses the many issues surrounding electronic cigarettes in an unprecedented level of scientific detail. The plethora of product devices, formulations, and flavors, combined with the lack of industry standards and labeling requirements, quality control, and limited product oversight, has given rise to public concern about initiation of use and potential for adverse exposure and negative long-term health outcomes. This volume discusses how analytical methods can address these issues and support the manufacturing, labeling, distribution, testing, regulation, and monitoring for consistency of products with known chemical content and demonstrated performance characteristics. The book begins with the background on aerosol drug delivery services and e-cigarettes, constituents of nicotine-containing liquid dosing formulations, typical use scenarios and associated aerosol emissions, and chemical exposures and pharmacological and toxicological effect profiles, and then continues with descriptions of the analytical methods used to characterize the chemicals in formulations and emissions from e-cigarettes, including their stability, physical particle-size distribution and thermal degradation under commonly employed conditions of use. Analytical methods enabling detection of biomarkers of exposure and harm in complex biological matrices are discussed, with an emphasis on constituents or emissions of current medicinal interest or with potential to produce harm. Opportunities and challenges for analytical chemistry in supporting the continued development and use of safe and consistent dosage formulations as alternatives to tobacco products are also explored, with a concluding section describing an analytical approach to a risk-benefit assessment of e-cigarette use on human health. The Emerging Issues in Analytical Chemistry series is published in partnership with RTI International and edited by Brian F. Thomas. Please be sure to check out our other featured volumes: Thomas, Brian F. and ElSohly, Mahmoud. The Analytical Chemistry of Cannabis: Quality Assessment, Assurance, and Regulation of Medicinal Marijuana and Cannabinoid Preparations, 9780128046463, December 2015. Hackney, Anthony C. Exercise, Sport, and Bioanalytical Chemistry: Principles and Practice, 9780128092064, March 2016. Tanna, Sangeeta and Lawson, Graham. Analytical Chemistry for Assessing Medication Adherence, 9780128054635, April 2016. Rao, Vikram; Knight, Rob; and Stoner, Brian. Sustainable Shale Oil and Gas: Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Geochemistry Methods, 9780128103890, September 2016. Discusses the chemistry and physics involved in aerosol production, inhalation, deposition, chemical exposure, and effect assessment Contains current information and state-of-the-science methods on e-cigarette emissions, exposures, and harm assessment Offers an authoritative, objective perspective from five of the most well-recognized scientists in their areas of expertise who have no personal stake in the e-cigarette industry or the opposition Includes a foreword written by Dr. Neal Benowitz
CSSE2014 proceeding tends to collect the most up-to-date, comprehensive, and worldwide state-of-art knowledge on Computer Science and Software Engineering. All the accepted papers have been submitted to strict peer-review by 2–4 expert referees, and selected based on originality, significance and clarity for the purpose of the conference. The conference program is extremely rich, profound and featuring high-impact presentations of selected papers and additional late-breaking contributions. We sincerely hope that the conference would not only show the participants a broad overview of the latest research results on related fields, but also provide them with a significant platform for academic connection and exchange. The Technical Program Committee members have been working very hard to meet the deadline of review. The final conference program consists of 126 papers divided into 4 sessions.