Exposure to noise at home, at work, while traveling, and during leisure activities is a fact of life for all Americans. At times noise can be loud enough to damage hearing, and at lower levels it can disrupt normal living, affect sleep patterns, affect our ability to concentrate at work, interfere with outdoor recreational activities, and, in some cases, interfere with communications and even cause accidents. Clearly, exposure to excessive noise can affect our quality of life. As the population of the United States and, indeed, the world increases and developing countries become more industrialized, problems of noise are likely to become more pervasive and lower the quality of life for everyone. Efforts to manage noise exposures, to design quieter buildings, products, equipment, and transportation vehicles, and to provide a regulatory environment that facilitates adequate, cost-effective, sustainable noise controls require our immediate attention. Technology for a Quieter America looks at the most commonly identified sources of noise, how they are characterized, and efforts that have been made to reduce noise emissions and experiences. The book also reviews the standards and regulations that govern noise levels and the federal, state, and local agencies that regulate noise for the benefit, safety, and wellness of society at large. In addition, it presents the cost-benefit trade-offs between efforts to mitigate noise and the improvements they achieve, information sources available to the public on the dimensions of noise problems and their mitigation, and the need to educate professionals who can deal with these issues. Noise emissions are an issue in industry, in communities, in buildings, and during leisure activities. As such, Technology for a Quieter America will appeal to a wide range of stakeholders: the engineering community; the public; government at the federal, state, and local levels; private industry; labor unions; and nonprofit organizations. Implementation of the recommendations in Technology for a Quieter America will result in reduction of the noise levels to which Americans are exposed and will improve the ability of American industry to compete in world markets paying increasing attention to the noise emissions of products.
Provides a summary of current research results on the physiological and psychological effects of sound on people Covers how the operation of the hearing mechanism affects our reactions to sounds Includes research results from studies on noise sources of public concern such as transportation, public utility, and recreational sources, with emphasis on low frequency sound and infrasound Covers sounds that affect some but not others, how sounds can be controlled on a practical level, and how and what sounds are regulated Includes coverage of both positive and negative effects of sound
Author: John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
America's national parks provide a wealth of experiences to millions of people every year. What visitors see-landscapes, wildlife, cultural activities-often lingers in memory for life. And what they hear adds a dimension that sight alone cannot provide. Natural sounds can dramatically enhance visitors' experience of many aspects of park environments. In some settings, such as the expanses of Yellowstone National Park, they can even be the best way to enjoy wildlife, because animals can be heard at much greater distances than they can be seen. Sounds can also be a natural complement to natural scenes, whether the rush of water over a rocky streambed or a ranger's explanation of a park's history. In other settings, such as the New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park, sounds are the main reason for visiting a park. The acoustical environment is also important to the well-being of the parks themselves. Many species of wildlife depend on their hearing to find prey or avoid predators. If they cannot hear, their survival is jeopardized-and the parks where they live may in turn lose part of their natural heritage. For all these reasons it is important to be aware of noise (defined as unwanted sound, and in this case usually generated by humans or machinery), which can degrade the acoustical environment, or soundscape, of parks. Just as smog smudges the visual horizon, noise obscures the listening horizon for both visitors and wildlife. This is especially true in places, such as remote wilderness areas, where extremely low sound levels are common. The National Park Service (NPS) has determined that park facilities, operations, and maintenance activities produce a substantial portion of noise in national parks and thus recognizes the need to provide park managers with guidance for protecting the natural soundscape from such noise. Therefore, the focus of the workshop was to define what park managers can do to control noise from facilities, operations, and maintenance, and not on issues such as the effects of noise on wildlife, noise metrics, and related topics. To aid in this effort, NPS joined with the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and with the US Department of Transportation's John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center to hold a workshop to examine the challenges and opportunities facing the nation's array of parks. Entitled "Protecting National Park Soundscapes: Best Available Technologies and Practices for Reducing Park- Generated Noise," the workshop took place October 3-4, 2012, at NPS's Natural Resource Program Center in Fort Collins, Colorado. Protecting National Park Soundscapes is a summary of the workshop.
A comprehensive evaluation of the basic theory for acoustics, noise and vibration control together with fundamentals of how this theoretical material can be applied to real world problems in the control of noise and vibration in aircraft, appliances, buildings, industry, and vehicles. The basic theory is presented in elementary form and only of sufficient complication necessary to solve real practical problems. Unnecessary advanced theoretical approaches are not included. In addition to the fundamental material discussed, chapters are included on human hearing and response to noise and vibration, acoustics and vibration transducers, instrumentation, noise and vibration measurements, and practical discussions concerning: community noise and vibration, interior and exterior noise of aircraft, road and rail vehicles, machinery noise and vibration sources, noise and vibration in rapid transit rail vehicles, automobiles, trucks, off road vehicles, and ships. In addition, extensive up to date useful references are included at the end of each chapter for further reading. The book concludes with a glossary on acoustics, noise and vibration
This volume, the result of an ongoing bridge building effort among engineers and humanists, addresses a variety of philosophical, ethical, and policy issues emanating from engineering and technology. Interwoven through its chapters are two themes, often held in tension with one another: “Exploring Boundaries” and “Expanding Connections.” “Expanding Connections” highlights contributions that look to philosophy for insight into some of the challenges engineers face in working with policy makers, lay designers, and other members of the public. It also speaks to reflections included in this volume on the connections between fact and value, reason and emotion, engineering practice and the social good, and, of course, between engineering and philosophy. “Exploring Boundaries” highlights contributions that focus on some type of demarcation. Public policy sets a boundary between what is regulated from what is not, academic disciplines delimit themselves by their subjects and methods of inquiry, and professions approach problems with unique goals and by using concepts and language in particular ways that create potential obstacles to collaboration with other fields. These and other forms of boundary setting are also addressed in this volume. Contributors explore these two themes in a variety of specific contexts, including engineering epistemology, engineers’ social responsibilities, engineering and public policy-making, engineering innovation, and the affective dimensions of engineering work. The book also includes analyses of social and ethical issues with emerging technologies such as 3-D printing and its use in medical applications, as well as social robots. Initial versions of the invited papers included in this book were first presented at the 2014 meeting of the Forum on Philosophy, Engineering, and Technology (fPET), held at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. The volume furthers fPET’s intent of extending and developing the philosophy of engineering as an academic field, and encouraging conversation, promoting a sense of shared enterprise, and building community among philosophers and engineers across a diversity of cultural backgrounds and approaches to inquiry.
Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, Second Edition presents the newest release in this fundamental reference that updates and broadens the umbrella of environmental health— especially social and environmental health—for its readers. There is ongoing revolution in governance, policies and intervention strategies aimed at evolving changes in health disparities, disease burden, trans-boundary transport and health hazards. This new edition reflects these realities, mapping new directions in the field that include how to minimize threats and develop new scientific paradigms that address emerging local, national and global environmental concerns. Represents a one-stop resource for scientifically reliable information on environmental health Fills a critical gap, with information on one of the most rapidly growing scientific fields of our time Provides comparative approaches to environmental health practice and research in different countries and regions of the world Covers issues behind specific questions and describes the best available scientific methods for environmental risk assessment
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (U.S. Congress, 1970). Today the agency is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIOSH is charged with the responsibility to "conduct . . . research, experiments, and demonstrations relating to occupational safety and health" and to develop "innovative methods, techniques, and approaches for dealing with [those] problems" (U.S. Congress, 1970). Its research targets include identifying criteria for use in setting worker exposure standards and exploring new problems that may arise in the workplace. Prevention of occupational hearing loss has been part of the NIOSH research portfolio from the time the agency was established. A principal cause of occupational hearing loss is the cumulative effect of years of exposure to hazardous noise. Exposure to certain chemicals with or without concomitant noise exposure may also contribute to occupational hearing loss. Hearing loss may impede communication in the workplace and contribute to safety hazards. Occupationally acquired hearing loss may also have an adverse effect on workers' lives beyond the workplace. No medical means are currently available to prevent or reverse it, although hearing aids are widely used and research on other treatments is ongoing. Occupational hearing loss is a serious concern, although the number of workers affected is uncertain. In September 2004, NIOSH requested that the National Academies conduct reviews of as many as 15 NIOSH programs with respect to the impact and relevance of their work in reducing workplace injury and illness and to identify future directions that their work might take. The Hearing Loss Research Program was selected by NIOSH as one of the first two programs to be reviewed. Hearing Loss Research at NIOSH examines the following issues for the Hearing Loss Research Program: (1) Progress in reducing workplace illness and injuries through occupational safety and health research, assessed on the basis of an analysis of relevant data about workplace illnesses and injuries and an evaluation of the effect that NIOSH research has had in reducing illness and injuries, (2) Progress in targeting new research to the areas of occupational safety and health most relevant to future improvements in workplace protection, and (3) Significant emerging research areas that appear especially important in terms of their relevance to the mission of NIOSH.
Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience and others. Here is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, medical acoustics and ocean acoustics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest research and applications are incorporated throughout, e.g. computer recognition and synthesis of speech, physiological acoustics, psychological acoustics, thermoacoustics, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications and acoustical oceanography. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations and two new chapters covering microphone arrays, acoustic metamaterials and acoustic emission. These improvements will make the handbook even more useful as a reference and a guide for researchers and students in every branch of acoustics. Praise for the first edition: "This treatise is a successful attempt to cover in one book the diverse field of acoustics, which ranges from physics to music and from formal mathematics to technological applications. ... It is this reviewer's opinion that a handbook like Rossing's, which covers the whole field of acoustics, serves a real purpose because it not only gives one a chance to see how one's specialty is covered but it also permits one to make a quick survey of other acoustical areas." (Leo Beranek, American Journal of Physics, Vol. 77 (12), December, 2009) "The Springer Handbook of Acoustics falls into that exceptional list. ...every physics department should have a copy available." (John L. Hubisz, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 48, March, 2010) "This handbook is an excellent addition to the acoustics literature. ... The handbook nicely covers both basics and advances in several areas of acoustics. Several chapters provide good mathematical depth, making the handbook useful as a research and technical resource. ...Overall, a very useful educational and research resource. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals." (M. G. Prasad, CHOICE, Vol. 45 (5), January, 2008) "This book covers a wide range of topics and the inclusion of musical acoustics, computer and electronic music appeal to me (singer, song-writer, performer and recording studio co-owner). This handbook is probably well suited for an undergraduate-level introduction to an acoustics course. ... The wide range of topics, inclusion of music-related chapters, eye-pleasing presentations and other useful features make this a very good book to have on your shelf." (Tim Casey, International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, Vol. 13 (1), 2008) "The Springer Handbook of Acoustics comprises 28 chapters written by 33 authors. The Handbook of Acoustics is useful as a source book for anyone who needs or wants to become familiar with the jargon and issues related to a specific subfield of acoustics ... ." (Robert I. Odom, Siam Review, Vol. 50 (3), 2008) The Springer Handbook of Acoustics reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest research and applications are incorporated throughout, e.g. computer recognition and synthesis of speech, physiological acoustics, psychological acoustics, thermoacoustics, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications and acoustical oceanography. This new edition of the Handbook features over 13 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations and 3 new chapters covering microphone arrays, acoustic metamaterials and acoustic emission. These improvements will make the handbook even more useful as a reference and a guide for researchers and students in every branch of acoustics.
"This report examines U.S. transportation's consumption of petroleum fuels and the public interest in reducing this consumption to enhance national energy security and help control emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). Scientific analyses and models indicate a need to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of these gases by the middle of this century. Worldwide emissions reductions of up to 80 percent may be needed over the next four decades as a consequence. A response by the transportation sector to this energy and emissions challenge will be important, because the sector accounts for more than two-thirds of the petroleum consumed in the United States and produces between one-quarter and one-third of all the CO2 emissions attributable to the country's energy consumption. The report reviews policy options to bring about desired energy consumption and GHG emissions reductions from U.S. transportation over the next half century. It is not intended to model or quantify the impacts of each policy option over time but instead to examine the means by which each influences behavior and the demand for and supply of energy- and emissions-saving technology, particularly in the modes of transportation with the greatest effect on the sector's consumption of petroleum and emissions of GHGs. In choosing among policies, elected officials must take into account many factors that could not be examined in this study, such as the full range of safety, economic, and environmental implications of their choices; therefore, the report does not recommend a specific suite of policies to pursue. Instead, the emphasis is on assessing each policy approach with regard to its applicability across transportation modes and its ability to affect the total amount of energy-intensive transportation activity, the efficiency of transportation vehicles, and GHG emissions characteristics of the sector's energy supply. For each policy option, consideration is given to the challenges associated with implementation and with the production of large savings in energy and GHG emissions over a time span of decades."--pub. desc.