Soundscape Basics and Practical Implications Soundscape research represents a paradigm shift, as it involves human and social sciences and physical measurements to account for the diversity of soundscapes across countries and cultures. Moreover, it treats environmental sounds as a resource rather than a waste. Soundscape and the Built Environment is the first book to systematically discuss soundscape in the built environment. It begins with a presentation of theory and basic background, answering questions such as: what is soundscape, how is it important, and how does it affect people in terms of their health and perception on the acoustic environment. The book then sets out tools for implementing a soundscape approach, with measurement techniques, mapping, and good soundscape practices. It also delivers a series of examples of the application of the soundscape approach in planning, design, and assessment. Discusses soundscape and environmental noise Explores cultural variations and the way they influence soundscape Introduces binaural measurement technology and psychoacoustics Examines the physical, psychological, and physiological restorative mechanism of high-quality acoustic environments Presents soundscape mapping based on human perception of sound sources Includes real-world examples and case studies highlighting the key issues in soundscape intervention Soundscape and the Built Environment is written by a group of leading international figures and derives from a four-year EU COST project on Soundscapes of European Cities and Landscapes. It presents a consensus on the current state of the art and is not merely a collection of different views. It is written for acoustic consultants, urban planners, designers and policy makers, as well as for graduate students and researchers.
This book gathers 14 original contributions published in an IJERPH Special Issue that deal with the perception of environmental sounds and how such sounds are likely to affect human quality of life and well-being and the experience of a place. The research focus over the years has been gradually shifting from treating sound simply as “noise” and something that cities should get rid of to a potential “resource” to promote and support community life in public spaces. Three main topics or “needs” to be addressed by researchers and practitioners emerged from this Special Issue: (1) the need to re-think “quietness” in cities as something that goes beyond the mere “pursuit of silence”, (2) the need to integrate additional contextual factors in the characterization and management of urban acoustic environments for public health, and (3) the need to consider the acoustic quality of indoor spaces as opposed to an outdoor-only perspective. The contributions collected in this book will hopefully trigger new questions and inform the agenda of future researchers and practitioners in the environmental acoustics domain.
This volume brings together the world’s leading experts on urban and transport planning, environmental exposures, physical activity, health and health impact assessment to discuss challenges and solutions in cities. The book provides a conceptual framework and work program for actions and outlines future research needs. It presents the current evidence-base, the benefits of and numerous case studies on integrating health and the environment into urban development and transport planning. Within cities there is a considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as ambient air pollution, noise, and temperature, green space availability and physical activity. Many of these exposures, and their adverse health impacts, are related to and are being exacerbated by urban and transport planning and policy. Emerging research suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, traffic density, household density, industry, and natural and green space can explain a large proportion of the variability in environmental exposures and therefore represent important and highly modifiable factors. The urban environment is a complex interlinked system. Decision-makers need not only better data on the complexity of factors in environmental and developmental processes affecting human health, but also an enhanced understanding of the linkages between these factors and health effects to determine at which level to target their actions most effectively. In recent years, there also has been a shift from trying to change at the national level to more comprehensive and ambitious actions being developed and implemented at the regional and local levels. Cities have come to the forefront of providing solutions for environmental issues such as climate change, which has co-benefits for health, but yet need better knowledge for wider health-centric action. This book provides the latest and most up-to-date information and studies for academics and practitioners alike.
Noise pollution is one of the factors that affect the quality of life of the general population, especially in urban areas, where the noise levels are often high due to the presence of numerous sources, such as transport infrastructures, activities production and commercial areas, entertainment venues and other sound sources which, although temporary, such as construction sites and outdoor music events, affect general noise levels. Even if noise is one of the oldest pollutants referred to in history, for years, the problem of noise pollution has been often considered less important than others related to the environment, such as air pollution, water pollution, and waste management.The regulations in force to contain the noise have become increasingly stringent as each individual is constantly exposed to noise and often the noise is treated just as a scourge of modern society. Making noise is becoming easier and cheaper each day, but just the opposite for controlling it. Deeper studies are needed to understand the core of current noise problems; new materials and techniques are needed to control them. This book is a combination of theory and practice based on the latest research. The studies in this book range from evaluation methods for the perception of noise and outline forecast criteria that can be integrated with applications for acoustic mapping as well as the use of innovative techniques and materials for its abatement. The main purpose of this book, organized in 8 chapters, is to provide an overview of the recent studies in this field and the applications in different research studies. The authors, contributing to the success of this book, provide a series of practical applications of their recent studies aimed at the reduction of noise in different environments. The editors would like to thank all the authors who, through their studies and research, have accepted our invitation to share recent discoveries in this field with the scientific community.
The creation of metropolitan areas is influenced by a wide array of factors, both practical and ecological. They can also be influenced by immaterial characteristics of a given area. The Handbook of Research on Perception-Driven Approaches to Urban Assessment and Design is a scholarly resource that assesses metropolitan development and its relation to the ecological and sustainability issues these areas face. Featuring coverage on a wide range of topics such as user-centered urban planning, perception of urban landscapes, and thermal comfort in urban contexts, this publication is geared toward professionals, practitioners, researchers, and students seeking relevant research on the effective planning of metropolitan areas and their relation to the ecological and sustainability issues that face such areas.
The field of Sound Studies has changed and developed dramatically over the last two decades involving a vast and dizzying array of work produced by those working in the arts, social sciences and sciences. The study of sound is inherently interdisciplinary and is undertaken both by those who specialize in sound and by others who wish to include sound as an intrinsic and indispensable element in their research. This is the first resource to provide a wide ranging, cross-cultural and interdisciplinary investigation and analysis of the ways in which researchers use a broad range of methodologies in order to pursue their sonic investigations. It brings together 49 specially commissioned chapters that ask a wide range of questions including; how can sound be used in current academic disciplines? Is sound as a methodological tool indispensable for Sound Studies and what can sound artists contribute to the discourse on methodology in Sound Studies? The editors also present 3 original chapters that work as provocative 'sonic methodological interventions' prefacing the 3 sections of the book.
Climate change is believed to be a great challenge to built environment professionals in design and management. An integrated approach in delivering a sustainable built environment is desired by the built environment professional institutions. The aim of this book is to provide an advanced understanding of the key subjects required for the design and management of modern built environments to meet carbon emission reduction targets. In Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments, an international group of experts provide comprehensive and the most up-to-date knowledge, covering sustainable urban and building design, management and assessment. The best practice case studies of the implementation of sustainable technology and management from the BRE Innovation Park are included. Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments will be of interest to urban and building designers, environmental engineers, and building performance assessors. It will be particularly useful as a reference book for undergraduate and postgraduate students in the built environment field.
Environmental Noise Pollution, Second Edition, addresses the key debates surrounding environmental noise pollution, its modelling and mitigation using examples from across the globe. Environmental noise pollution is now an established concern in environmental and public policy and is considered one of the most important environmental stressors affecting public health throughout the world. Thoroughly revised, this new edition includes updated global case studies as well as new chapters on ‘soundscapes and noise mapping’ and ‘environmental noise and technology’. This book examines environmental noise pollution, its health implications, noise modelling, the role of strategic noise mapping for problem assessment, major sources of environmental noise pollution, noise mitigation approaches, and related procedural and policy implications. Drawing on the authors’ considerable research expertise in the area, the book is a fully updated resource on this major environmental stressor that crosses disciplinary, policy and national boundaries. Highlights recent developments in the policy arena, with a particular focus on global developments in environmental noise management and mitigation Explores the lessons emerging from nations within the EU and other jurisdictions attempting to legislate and mitigate against the harmful effects of noise pollution Covers the core theoretical concepts and principles surrounding the mechanics of noise pollution as well as evidence linking noise with public health concerns Thoroughly revised throughout, with more global examples and two new chapters on technology and noise and soundscapes