CRYSTAL—Alberta was established to research ways to improve students’ understanding and reasoning in science and mathematics. To accomplish this goal, faculty members in Education, Science, and Engineering, as well as school teachers joined forces to produce a resource bank of innovative and tested instructional materials that are transforming teaching in the K-12 classroom. Many of the instructional materials cross traditional disciplinary boundaries and explore contemporary topics such as global climate change and the spread of the West Nile virus. Combined with an emphasis on the use of visualizations, the instructional materials improve students’ engagement with science and mathematics. Participation in the CRYSTAL—Alberta project has changed the way I think about the connection between what I do as a researcher and what I do as a teacher: I have learned how to better translate scientific knowledge into language and activities appropriate for students, thereby transforming my own teaching. I also have learned to make better connections between what students are learning and what is happening in their lives and the world, thereby increasing students’ interest in the subject and enriching their learning experience.
This inaugural handbook documents the distinctive research field that utilizes history and philosophy in investigation of theoretical, curricular and pedagogical issues in the teaching of science and mathematics. It is contributed to by 130 researchers from 30 countries; it provides a logically structured, fully referenced guide to the ways in which science and mathematics education is, informed by the history and philosophy of these disciplines, as well as by the philosophy of education more generally. The first handbook to cover the field, it lays down a much-needed marker of progress to date and provides a platform for informed and coherent future analysis and research of the subject. The publication comes at a time of heightened worldwide concern over the standard of science and mathematics education, attended by fierce debate over how best to reform curricula and enliven student engagement in the subjects. There is a growing recognition among educators and policy makers that the learning of science must dovetail with learning about science; this handbook is uniquely positioned as a locus for the discussion. The handbook features sections on pedagogical, theoretical, national, and biographical research, setting the literature of each tradition in its historical context. It reminds readers at a crucial juncture that there has been a long and rich tradition of historical and philosophical engagements with science and mathematics teaching, and that lessons can be learnt from these engagements for the resolution of current theoretical, curricular and pedagogical questions that face teachers and administrators. Science educators will be grateful for this unique, encyclopaedic handbook, Gerald Holton, Physics Department, Harvard University This handbook gathers the fruits of over thirty years’ research by a growing international and cosmopolitan community Fabio Bevilacqua, Physics Department, University of Pavia
This book specifies the foundation for Adapted Primary Literature (APL), a novel text genre that enables the learning and teaching of science using research articles that were adapted to the knowledge level of high-school students. More than 50 years ago, J.J. Schwab suggested that Primary Scientific Articles “afford the most authentic, unretouched specimens of enquiry that we can obtain” and raised for the first time the idea that such articles can be used for “enquiry into enquiry”. This book, the first to be published on this topic, presents the realization of this vision and shows how the reading and writing of scientific articles can be used for inquiry learning and teaching. It provides the origins and theory of APL and examines the concept and its importance. It outlines a detailed description of creating and using APL and provides examples for the use of the enactment of APL in classes, as well as descriptions of possible future prospects for the implementation of APL. Altogether, the book lays the foundations for the use of this authentic text genre for the learning and teaching of science in secondary schools.
This book explores the importance of language in content learning. It focuses on teachers’ roles, knowledge and understanding of language in school contexts (including academic language and disciplinary languages) to support students. It examines teachers' language-related knowledge base for content teaching, which include teachers' knowledge of and about language, knowledge of (their) students and their pedagogical knowledge. This book also explores how teachers’ knowledge of language, students and content are linked as part of a larger pedagogical content knowledge, which includes knowledge of the role of language in content learning. As well, it further considers literacy (and literacies) as part of this examination of teachers’ knowledge of language.
Nations worldwide consider education an important tool for economic and social development, and the use of innovative strategies to prepare students for the acquisition of knowledge and skills is currently considered the most effective strategy for nurturing engaged, informed learners. In the last decade especially, European countries have promoted a series of revisions to their curricula and in the ways teachers are trained to put these into practice. Updating curriculum contents, pedagogical facilities (for example, computers in schools), and teaching and learning strategies should be seen as a routine task, since social and pedagogical needs change over time. Nevertheless, educational institutions and actors (educational departments, schools, teachers, and even students) normally tend to be committed to traditional practices. As a result of this resistance to change within educational systems, implementing educational innovation is a big challenge. The authors of the present volume have been involved with curriculum development since 2003. This work is an opportunity to present the results of more than a decade of research into experimental, inventive approaches to science education. Most chapters concern innovative strategies for the teaching and learning of new contents, as well as methods for learning to teach them at the pre-university school level. The research is focused on understanding the pedagogical issues around the process of innovation, and the findings are grounded in analyses of the limits and possibilities of teachers’ and students’ practices in schools.
This volume provides a contemporary glance at the drastically expanding field of delivering large-scale education to unprecedented numbers of learners. It compiles papers presented at the CELDA (Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age) conference, which has a goal of continuing to address these challenges and promote the effective use of new tools and technologies to support teaching, learning and assessment. Given the emerging global trend to exploit the potential of existing digital technologies to improve the teaching, learning and assessment experiences for all learners in real-life contexts, this topic is a unifying theme for this volume. The book showcases how emerging educational technologies and innovative practices have been used to address core global educational challenges. It provides state-of-the-art insights and case studies of exploiting innovative learning technologies, including Massive Open Online Courses and educational data analytics, to address key global challenges spanning from online Teacher Education to large-scale coding competence development. This volume will be of interest to academics and professional practitioners working in the area of digital technology integration in teaching, learning and assessment, as well as those interested in specific conference themes (e.g., designing and assessing learning in online environments, assessing learning in complex domains) and presenters, invited speakers, and participants of the CELDA conference.
This engaging and practical volume looks at discourse strategies and how they can be used to facilitate and enhance science teaching and learning within the classroom context, offering a synthesis of research on classroom discourse in science education as well as practical discourse strategies that can be applied to the classroom. Focusing on the connection between research and practice, this comprehensive guide unpacks and illustrates key concepts on the role of discourse in students’ thinking and learning based on empirical analysis of real conversations in a number of science classrooms. Using real-life classroom examples to extend the scope of research into science classroom discourse begun during the 1990s, Kok-Sing Tang offers original discourse strategies as explicit methods of using discourse to engage in meaning-making and work towards a specific instructional goal. This volume covers new and informative topics including how to use discourse to: Establish classroom activity and interaction Build and assess scientific content knowledge Organize and evaluate scientific narrative Enact scientific practices Coordinate the use of multimodal representations Building on more than ten years of research on classroom discourse, Discourse Strategies for Science Teaching and Learning is an ideal text for science teacher educators, pre-service science teachers, scholars, and researchers.
This edited volume presents a collection of empirical studies examining the teaching and learning processes in science classrooms in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) contexts. It is a timely contribution to the rapidly growing body of CLIL research in response to scholars’ consistent calls for more classroom-based research on the issues in integration of content and language teaching in lessons. With the dual goal of content and language learning, students in CLIL programmes are also facing double challenges – mastery of abstract, cognitively demanding content knowledge and unfamiliar academic language. Focusing on the notion of “scaffolding”, this edited volume demonstrates how science teachers can provide appropriate and timely scaffolding for their students to overcome the challenges in CLIL science classrooms. With studies from different educational settings (Hong Kong, Mainland China, Singapore and Australia) and epistemological paradigms, and adopting a variety of research designs, this volume will provide key insights into CLIL pedagogy and teacher education. Originally published as special issue of Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education 7:2 (2019).
This book offers a meso-level description of demographics, science education, and science teacher education. Representing all 13 Canadian jurisdictions, the book provides local insights that serve as the basis for exploring the Canadian system as a whole and function as a common starting point from which to identify causal relationships that may be associated with Canada’s successes. The book highlights commonalities, consistencies, and distinctions across the provinces and territories in a thematic analysis of the 13 jurisdiction-specific chapters. Although the analysis indicates a network of policy and practice issues warranting further consideration, the diverse nature of Canadian science education makes simple identification of causal relationships elusive. Canada has a reputation for strong science achievement. However, there is currently limited literature on science education in Canada at the general level or in specific areas such as Canadian science curriculum or science teacher education. This book fills that gap by presenting a thorough description of science education at the provincial/territorial level, as well as a more holistic description of pressing issues for Canadian science education.
Science education at school level worldwide faces three perennial problems that have become more pressing of late. These are to a considerable extent interwoven with concerns about the entire school curriculum and its reception by students. The rst problem is the increasing intellectual isolation of science from the other subjects in the school curriculum. Science is too often still taught didactically as a collection of pre-determined truths about which there can be no dispute. As a con- quence, many students do not feel any “ownership” of these ideas. Most other school subjects do somewhat better in these regards. For example, in language classes, s- dents suggest different interpretations of a text and then debate the relative merits of the cases being put forward. Moreover, ideas that are of use in science are presented to students elsewhere and then re-taught, often using different terminology, in s- ence. For example, algebra is taught in terms of “x, y, z” in mathematics classes, but students are later unable to see the relevance of that to the meaning of the universal gas laws in physics, where “p, v, t” are used. The result is that students are c- fused and too often alienated, leading to their failure to achieve that “extraction of an education from a scheme of instruction” which Jerome Bruner thought so highly desirable.
Building on the foundation set in Volume I—a landmark synthesis of research in the field—Volume II is a comprehensive, state-of-the-art new volume highlighting new and emerging research perspectives. The contributors, all experts in their research areas, represent the international and gender diversity in the science education research community. The volume is organized around six themes: theory and methods of science education research; science learning; culture, gender, and society and science learning; science teaching; curriculum and assessment in science; science teacher education. Each chapter presents an integrative review of the research on the topic it addresses—pulling together the existing research, working to understand the historical trends and patterns in that body of scholarship, describing how the issue is conceptualized within the literature, how methods and theories have shaped the outcomes of the research, and where the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps are in the literature. Providing guidance to science education faculty and graduate students and leading to new insights and directions for future research, the Handbook of Research on Science Education, Volume II is an essential resource for the entire science education community.
This book illustrates the problems of using eye tracking technology and other bio-measurements in science education research. It examines the application of bio-measurements in researching cognitive processes, motivation for learning science concepts, and solving science problems. Most chapters of this book use the eye-tracking method, which enables following the focus of the students’ attention and drawing conclusions about the strategies they used to solve the problem. This book consists of a total of fifteen chapters. Authors from eight countries emphasise the same trends despite their cultural and educational differences. The book begins with general chapters describing cognitive processes and how these processes are measured using eye-tracking methods and other psychophysiology parameters and motivation. Finally, the book concludes the chapters presenting studies in specific scientific fields from chemistry, biology, physics and geology.