The papers in this volume revisit one of the concerns which dominated environmental archaeology through the 1960s and 1970s, namely the timing, nature and extent of human impact on the environment. The thirteen contributions reflect the diversity of approaches and ideas today and show how our understanding of the place of people in ecosystems is now more subtle. There are papers on palynological evidence from the Strymon Delta in Macedonia; prehistoric copper mining at Mount Gabriel, Ireland; fungal spores as anthropogenic indicators on Shetland; prehistoric human impact on the prehistoric environments of Orkney, North York Moors and the Mid-Devon landscape; mites as indicators of human impact in the Netherlands; the disappearance of Elmid `Riffle Beetles' from lowland river systems in Britain; and case studies from further afield: palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in the Central Mexican Highlands; food plant availability in the Murchison Basin, Western Australia, prior to European arrival and Paleoindian expansion into South America.
Now in its second edition. This text has been extensively revised and rewritten to reflect the growth in environmental research during the last decade. Human-induced environmental change is occurring at such a rapid rate that, inevitably, the fundamental processes involved in biogeochemical cycling are being altered. Global Environmental Change considers alterations to the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements as a result of industrial/technological development and agriculture, which have significantly altered the natural environment. The book adopts a temporal and spatial approach to environmental change, beginning with the natural environmental change of the Quaternery period and continuing with the culturally-induced change since the inception of agriculture 10,000 years ago.
Environmental health has evolved over time into a complex, multidisciplinary field. Many of the key determinants and solutions to environmental health problems lie outside the direct realm of health and are strongly dependent on environmental changes, water and sanitation, industrial development, education, employment, trade, tourism, agriculture, urbanization, energy, housing and national security. Environmental risks, vulnerability and variability manifest themselves in different ways and at different time scales. While there are shared global and transnational problems, each community, country or region faces its own unique environmental health problems, the solution of which depends on circumstances surrounding the resources, customs, institutions, values and environmental vulnerability. This work contains critical reviews and assessments of environmental health practices and research that have worked in places and thus can guide programs and economic development in other countries or regions. The Encyclopedia of Environmental Health seeks to conceptualize the subject more clearly, to describe the best available scientific methods that can be used in characterizing and managing environmental health risks, to extend the field of environmental health through new theoretical perspectives and heightened appreciation of social, economic and political contexts, and to encourage a richer analysis in the field through examples of diverse experiences in dealing with the health-environment interface. The Encyclopedia of Environmental Health contains numerous examples of policy options and environmental health practices that have worked and thus can guide programs in other countries or regions It includes a wide range of tools and strategies that can assist communities and countries in assessing environmental health conditions, monitoring progress of intervention implementation and evaluating outcomes Provides a comprehensive overview of existing knowledge in this emerging field Articles contain summaries and assessments of environmental health practices and research, providing a framework for further research Places environmental health in the broader context of environmental change and related ecological, political, economic, social, and cultural issues
This latest Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students, researchers and policy makers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology, atmospheric chemistry and environmental policy.
This book proposes a method to solve land use problems, and has made some significant contributions to the land use analysis and optimization study fields. Firstly, three spatio-temporal logit models for land use change analysis, namely, geographically and temporally weighted logit model (GTWLM), spatio-temporal panel logit model (ST-PLM) and generalized spatio-temporal logit model (GSTLM), are proposed. GTWLM, which considers spatio-temporal non-stationarity, includes temporal data in a spatio-temporal framework by proposing a spatiotemporal distance. ST-PLM incorporates the spatio-temporal correlation and individual effect in one model. By integrating GTWLM and ST-PLM, the GSTLM explores spatio-temporal non-stationarity and correlations simultaneously, whilst considering their individual effects to construct an integrated model. Secondly, a MOO-based two-level spatial planning of land use is proposed. The spatial planning aims at managing and coordinating the land use at different geographic extents and involves spatial layouts and structures of land use at different levels. In spatial planning, GIS and Remote Sensing are used to evaluate, analyze, and measure environmental, economic and social issues. The quantitative relationships between these objectives and spatial land use allocation are then used as rules in the MOO process to simulate environmental conditions under different spatial land use allocation scenarios. The book features a case study of Shenzhen city, the most important Special Economic Zone in China. This book will be of interest to academics and professionals in the fields of urban planning, land resource management, remote sensing and geographic information systems.
This guide to the planning of health promotion programs uses the increasingly popular Intervention Mapping approach, a theory- and evidence-based interactive process that links needs assessment with program planning in a way that adds efficiency and improves outcomes. Students, researchers, faculty, and professionals will appreciate the authors’ approach to applying theories of behavior and social change to the design of coherent, practical health education interventions. Written by internationally recognized authorities in Intervention Mapping, the book explains foundations in Intervention Mapping, provides an overview of the role of behavioral science theory in program planning3⁄4including a review of theories and how to assess theories and evidence3⁄4and a step-by-step guide to Intervention Mapping, along with detailed case examples of its application to public health programs. Planning Health Promotion Programs is the second and substantially revised edition of the bestselling resource Intervention Mapping.
Introduction -- Evidence of environmental guilt and shame -- Typology of guilt and shame -- Philosophical arguments for individuals, memberships, and collectives in states of guilt or shame -- Environmental guilt and shame -- Responding to critics of emotions and collectives -- Ethics of environmental guilt and shame -- The ethics of inducing and responding to guilt and shame -- Ritual responses to environmental guilt and shame -- Epilogue. Looking back, looking forward : lessons from studying environmental guilt and shame.
In these times of flux, organisations are compelled to proactively effect changes in their systems to cope with various factors in the external and internal environment. This comprehensive book tackles all the areas where change interventions are necessary. It is divided into three parts: (1) Organisational Change (2) Organisation Development, and (3) Knowledge Management. The first part, comprising five chapters, includes an examination of the imperatives of change in today's environment of competition. The different forces of change political, economic, technological are examined against the backdrop of shifting customer needs, systems dynamics, inadequacy of administration, profitability issues and resource constraints. The various models of change, corporate culture in terms of basic value orientations and norms, techniques of identifying and diagnosing organisational culture, classical leadership skills, and the ten key factors in effective change management have all been thoroughly discussed, as have the techniques of designing tailor-made change programmes. The second part, comprising four chapters, introduces the concept of Organisation Development and dissects the basic assumptions against diagnostic models, skills and methods, change agents, power and control issues, and implications of power politics. Certain categories of ethical dilemmas have been explored. Various types of OD interventions ranging from interpersonal & team development to process, structural and intergroup development are exhaustively discussed. The third part of the book, comprising four chapters, highlights the need for knowledge management in the present business scenario and discusses the roadblocks to the adoption of knowledge management solutions. Principles of knowledge management have been discussed along with the process of maturation of knowledge management techniques. The characteristics of a learning organisation have been diagnosed and steps for initiating the process of organisational learning have been outlined. This book will be an invaluable resource for students, faculty as well as practising professionals.
The book s greatest strength is the range and theoretical ambition of its contributions to regime theory, governance, and international cooperation. . . Recommended. Graduate students, researchers, and faculty. D.L. Feldman, Choice The first Handbook of original articles by leading scholars of global environmental politics, this landmark volume maps the latest theoretical and empirical research in this young and growing field. Captured here are the dynamic and energetic debates over concerns for the health of the planet and how they might best be addressed. The introductory chapters explore the intellectual trends and evolving parameters in the field of global environmental politics. They make a case for an expansive definition of the field, one that embraces an interdisciplinary literature on the connections between global politics and environmental change. The remaining chapters are divided into three broad themes states, governance and security; capitalism, trade and corporations; and knowledge, civil societies and ethics with each section providing a cohesive discussion of current issues. In-depth explorations are given to topics such as: global commons, renewable energy, the effectiveness of environmental cooperation, regulations and corporate standards, trade liberalization and global environmental governance, and science and environmental citizenship. A comprehensive survey of the latest research, the Handbook is a necessary reference for scholars, students and policymakers in the field of global environmental politics.
The LNAI series reports state-of-the-art results in artificial intelligence research, development, and education, at a high level and in both printed and electronic form. Enjoying tight cooperation with the R&D community, with numerous individuals, as well as with prestigious organizations and societies, LNAI has grown into the most comprehensive artificial intelligence research forum available. The scope of LNAI spans the whole range of artificial intelligence and intelligent information processing including interdisciplinary topics in a variety of application fields. In parallel to the printed book, each new volume is published electronically in LNCS Online.