This contributed volume highlights two areas of fundamental interest in high-performance computing: core algorithms for important kernels and computationally demanding applications. The first few chapters explore algorithms, numerical techniques, and their parallel formulations for a variety of kernels that arise in applications. The rest of the volume focuses on state-of-the-art applications from diverse domains. By structuring the volume around these two areas, it presents a comprehensive view of the application landscape for high-performance computing, while also enabling readers to develop new applications using the kernels. Readers will learn how to choose the most suitable parallel algorithms for any given application, ensuring that theory and practicality are clearly connected. Applications using these techniques are illustrated in detail, including: Computational materials science and engineering Computational cardiovascular analysis Multiscale analysis of wind turbines and turbomachinery Weather forecasting Machine learning techniques Parallel Algorithms in Computational Science and Engineering will be an ideal reference for applied mathematicians, engineers, computer scientists, and other researchers who utilize high-performance computing in their work.
Our aim in this book is to present and enlarge upon those aspects of parallel computing that are needed by practitioners of computational science. Today al most all classical sciences, such as mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology, employ numerical methods to help gain insight into nature. In addition to the traditional numerical methods, such as matrix inversions and the like, a whole new field of computational techniques has come to assume central importance, namely the numerical simulation methods. These methods are much less fully developed than those which are usually taught in a standard numerical math ematics course. However, they form a whole new set of tools for research in the physical sciences and are applicable to a very wide range of problems. At the same time there have been not only enormous strides forward in the speed and capability of computers but also dramatic new developments in computer architecture, and particularly in parallel computers. These improvements offer exciting prospects for computer studies of physical systems, and it is the new techniques and methods connected with such computer simulations that we seek to present in this book, particularly in the light of the possibilities opened up by parallel computers. It is clearly not possible at this early stage to write a definitive book on simulation methods and parallel computing.
Numerical algorithms, modern programming techniques, and parallel computing are often taught serially across different courses and different textbooks. The need to integrate concepts and tools usually comes only in employment or in research - after the courses are concluded - forcing the student to synthesise what is perceived to be three independent subfields into one. This book provides a seamless approach to stimulate the student simultaneously through the eyes of multiple disciplines, leading to enhanced understanding of scientific computing as a whole. The book includes both basic as well as advanced topics and places equal emphasis on the discretization of partial differential equations and on solvers. Some of the advanced topics include wavelets, high-order methods, non-symmetric systems, and parallelization of sparse systems. The material covered is suited to students from engineering, computer science, physics and mathematics.
This book presents advances in high performance computing as well as advances accomplished using high performance computing. It contains a collection of papers presenting results achieved in the collaboration of scientists from computer science, mathematics, physics, and mechanical engineering. From science problems to mathematical algorithms and on to the effective implementation of these algorithms on massively parallel and cluster computers, the book presents state-of-the-art methods and technology, and exemplary results in these fields.
Parallel algorithms Made Easy The complexity of today's applications coupled with the widespread use of parallel computing has made the design and analysis of parallel algorithms topics of growing interest. This volume fills a need in the field for an introductory treatment of parallel algorithms-appropriate even at the undergraduate level, where no other textbooks on the subject exist. It features a systematic approach to the latest design techniques, providing analysis and implementation details for each parallel algorithm described in the book. Introduction to Parallel Algorithms covers foundations of parallel computing; parallel algorithms for trees and graphs; parallel algorithms for sorting, searching, and merging; and numerical algorithms. This remarkable book: * Presents basic concepts in clear and simple terms * Incorporates numerous examples to enhance students' understanding * Shows how to develop parallel algorithms for all classical problems in computer science, mathematics, and engineering * Employs extensive illustrations of new design techniques * Discusses parallel algorithms in the context of PRAM model * Includes end-of-chapter exercises and detailed references on parallel computing. This book enables universities to offer parallel algorithm courses at the senior undergraduate level in computer science and engineering. It is also an invaluable text/reference for graduate students, scientists, and engineers in computer science, mathematics, and engineering.
Scientific computing has often been called the third approach to scientific discovery, emerging as a peer to experimentation and theory. Historically, the synergy between experimentation and theory has been well understood: experiments give insight into possible theories, theories inspire experiments, experiments reinforce or invalidate theories, and so on. As scientific computing has evolved to produce results that meet or exceed the quality of experimental and theoretical results, it has become indispensable.Parallel processing has been an enabling technology in scientific computing for more than 20 years. This book is the first in-depth discussion of parallel computing in 10 years; it reflects the mix of topics that mathematicians, computer scientists, and computational scientists focus on to make parallel processing effective for scientific problems. Presently, the impact of parallel processing on scientific computing varies greatly across disciplines, but it plays a vital role in most problem domains and is absolutely essential in many of them. Parallel Processing for Scientific Computing is divided into four parts: The first concerns performance modeling, analysis, and optimization; the second focuses on parallel algorithms and software for an array of problems common to many modeling and simulation applications; the third emphasizes tools and environments that can ease and enhance the process of application development; and the fourth provides a sampling of applications that require parallel computing for scaling to solve larger and realistic models that can advance science and engineering. This edited volume serves as an up-to-date reference for researchers and application developers on the state of the art in scientific computing. It also serves as an excellent overview and introduction, especially for graduate and senior-level undergraduate students interested in computational modeling and simulation and related computer science and applied mathematics aspects.Contents List of Figures; List of Tables; Preface; Chapter 1: Frontiers of Scientific Computing: An Overview; Part I: Performance Modeling, Analysis and Optimization. Chapter 2: Performance Analysis: From Art to Science; Chapter 3: Approaches to Architecture-Aware Parallel Scientific Computation; Chapter 4: Achieving High Performance on the BlueGene/L Supercomputer; Chapter 5: Performance Evaluation and Modeling of Ultra-Scale Systems; Part II: Parallel Algorithms and Enabling Technologies. Chapter 6: Partitioning and Load Balancing; Chapter 7: Combinatorial Parallel and Scientific Computing; Chapter 8: Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement; Chapter 9: Parallel Sparse Solvers, Preconditioners, and Their Applications; Chapter 10: A Survey of Parallelization Techniques for Multigrid Solvers; Chapter 11: Fault Tolerance in Large-Scale Scientific Computing; Part III: Tools and Frameworks for Parallel Applications. Chapter 12: Parallel Tools and Environments: A Survey; Chapter 13: Parallel Linear Algebra Software; Chapter 14: High-Performance Component Software Systems; Chapter 15: Integrating Component-Based Scientific Computing Software; Part IV: Applications of Parallel Computing. Chapter 16: Parallel Algorithms for PDE-Constrained Optimization; Chapter 17: Massively Parallel Mixed-Integer Programming; Chapter 18: Parallel Methods and Software for Multicomponent Simulations; Chapter 19: Parallel Computational Biology; Chapter 20: Opportunities and Challenges for Parallel Computing in Science and Engineering; Index.
Advancements in microprocessor architecture, interconnection technology, and software development have fueled rapid growth in parallel and distributed computing. However, this development is only of practical benefit if it is accompanied by progress in the design, analysis and programming of parallel algorithms. This concise textbook provides, in one place, three mainstream parallelization approaches, Open MPP, MPI and OpenCL, for multicore computers, interconnected computers and graphical processing units. An overview of practical parallel computing and principles will enable the reader to design efficient parallel programs for solving various computational problems on state-of-the-art personal computers and computing clusters. Topics covered range from parallel algorithms, programming tools, OpenMP, MPI and OpenCL, followed by experimental measurements of parallel programs’ run-times, and by engineering analysis of obtained results for improved parallel execution performances. Many examples and exercises support the exposition.
Parallel Scientific Computing and Optimization introduces new developments in the construction, analysis, and implementation of parallel computing algorithms. This book presents 23 self-contained chapters, including survey chapters and surveys, written by distinguished researchers in the field of parallel computing. Each chapter is devoted to some aspects of the subject: parallel algorithms for matrix computations, parallel optimization, management of parallel programming models and data, with the largest focus on parallel scientific computing in industrial applications. This volume is intended for scientists and graduate students specializing in computer science and applied mathematics who are engaged in parallel scientific computing.
The Haifa 2000 Workshop on "Inherently Parallel Algorithms for Feasibility and Optimization and their Applications" brought together top scientists in this area. The objective of the Workshop was to discuss, analyze and compare the latest developments in this fast growing field of applied mathematics and to identify topics of research which are of special interest for industrial applications and for further theoretical study. Inherently parallel algorithms, that is, computational methods which are, by their mathematical nature, parallel, have been studied in various contexts for more than fifty years. However, it was only during the last decade that they have mostly proved their practical usefulness because new generations of computers made their implementation possible in order to solve complex feasibility and optimization problems involving huge amounts of data via parallel processing. These led to an accumulation of computational experience and theoretical information and opened new and challenging questions concerning the behavior of inherently parallel algorithms for feasibility and optimization, their convergence in new environments and in circumstances in which they were not considered before their stability and reliability. Several research groups all over the world focused on these questions and it was the general feeling among scientists involved in this effort that the time has come to survey the latest progress and convey a perspective for further development and concerted scientific investigations. Thus, the editors of this volume, with the support of the Israeli Academy for Sciences and Humanities, took the initiative of organizing a Workshop intended to bring together the leading scientists in the field. The current volume is the Proceedings of the Workshop representing the discussions, debates and communications that took place. Having all that information collected in a single book will provide mathematicians and engineers interested in the theoretical and practical aspects of the inherently parallel algorithms for feasibility and optimization with a tool for determining when, where and which algorithms in this class are fit for solving specific problems, how reliable they are, how they behave and how efficient they were in previous applications. Such a tool will allow software creators to choose ways of better implementing these methods by learning from existing experience.
A complete source of information on almost all aspects of parallel computing from introduction, to architectures, to programming paradigms, to algorithms, to programming standards. It covers traditional Computer Science algorithms, scientific computing algorithms and data intensive algorithms.
Motivation It is now possible to build powerful single-processor and multiprocessor systems and use them efficiently for data processing, which has seen an explosive ex pansion in many areas of computer science and engineering. One approach to meeting the performance requirements of the applications has been to utilize the most powerful single-processor system that is available. When such a system does not provide the performance requirements, pipelined and parallel process ing structures can be employed. The concept of parallel processing is a depar ture from sequential processing. In sequential computation one processor is in volved and performs one operation at a time. On the other hand, in parallel computation several processors cooperate to solve a problem, which reduces computing time because several operations can be carried out simultaneously. Using several processors that work together on a given computation illustrates a new paradigm in computer problem solving which is completely different from sequential processing. From the practical point of view, this provides sufficient justification to investigate the concept of parallel processing and related issues, such as parallel algorithms. Parallel processing involves utilizing several factors, such as parallel architectures, parallel algorithms, parallel programming lan guages and performance analysis, which are strongly interrelated. In general, four steps are involved in performing a computational problem in parallel. The first step is to understand the nature of computations in the specific application domain.