In this elegant critique, Amartya Sen argues that welfare economics can be enriched by paying more explicit attention to ethics, and that modern ethical studies can also benefit from a closer contact with economies. He argues further that even predictive and descriptive economics can be helped by making more room for welfare-economic considerations in the explanation of behaviour.
Economics and ethics are succumbing to the pull of disciplinary specialisation at their own peril. This volume represents a necessary and most welcome reminder of some ways in which the two are intertwined. How do economic preferences relate to ethical values? What are the motivational underpinnings on which we should base a theory of choice? What explains compliance with rules, and with tax legislation in particular? Any economist or political philosopher interested in these questions must read this book. Peter Dietsch, Université de Montréal, Canada Do market prices reflect values? What is the relation between social norms and economic incentives? Do economic agents respond to ethical arguments? By probing the boundaries between positive and normative theorizing and by bridging ethics, economics, and political science, this book is able to address a fascinating set of questions. I strongly recommend this book to anyone interested in normative issues in public policy to academics and practitioners alike. Fabienne Peter, University of Warwick, UK This book makes a rational and eloquent case for the closer integration of ethics and economics. It expands upon themes concerned with esteem, self-esteem, emotional bonding between agents, expressive concerns, and moral requirements. Economists have long assumed that value and price are synonymous and interchangeable. The authors show how disregarding this false assumption and adopting an interdisciplinary approach could improve the economics profession by distinguishing economic values from ethical values. Replete with discussions that will challenge conventional economics, this book offers a corrective argument against the rigid separation of agents motivation and the purely normative aspects of economic analysis. The various contributions explore the different dimensions at the frontier between the rational and the moral in political economy, ethics and philosophy. Containing a variety of cross-border analyses, this innovative book will be a must-read for economists, political scientists and philosophers. It will also be an invaluable resource for students in the fields of economics and philosophy.
Elizabeth Anderson offers a new theory of value and rationality that rejects cost-benefit analysis in our social lives and in our ethical theories. This account of the plurality of values thus offers a new approach, beyond welfare economics and traditional theories of justice, for assessing the ethical limitations of the market. In this light, Anderson discusses several contemporary controversies involving the proper scope of the market, including commercial surrogate motherhood, privatization of public services, and the application of cost-benefit analysis to issues of environmental protection. Table of Contents: Preface 1. A Pluralist Theory of Value A Rational Attitude Theory of Value Ideals and Self-Assessment How Goods Differ in Kind (I): Different Modes of Valuation How Goods Differ in Kind (II): Social Relations of Realization 2. An Expressive Theory of Rational Action Value and Rational Action The Framing of Decisions The Extrinsic Value of States of Affairs Consequentialism Practical Reason and the Unity of the Self 3. Pluralism and Incommensurable Goods The Advantages of Consequentialism A Pragmatic Theory of Comparative Value Judgments Incommensurable Goods Rational Choice among Incommensurable Goods 4. Self-Understanding, the Hierarchy of Values, and Moral Constraints The Test of Self-Understanding The Hierarchy of Values Agent-Centered Restrictions Hybrid Consequentialism A Self-Effacing Theory of Practical Reason? 5. Criticism, Justification, and Common Sense A Pragmatic Account of Objectivity The Thick Conceptual Structure of the Space of Reasons How Common Sense Can Be Self-Critical Why We Should Ignore Skeptical Challenges to Common Sense 6. Monistic Theories of Value Monism Moore's Aesthetic Monism Hedonism Rational Desire Theory 7. The Ethical Limitations of the Market Pluralism, Freedom, and Liberal Politics The Ideals and Social Relations of the Modern Market Civil Society and the Market Personal Relations and the Market Political Goods and the Market The Limitations of Market Ideologies 8. Is Women's Labor a Commodity? The Case of Commercial Surrogate Motherhood Children as Commodities Women's Labor as a Commodity Contract Pregnancy and the Status of Women Contract Pregnancy, Freedom, and the Law 9. Cost-Benefit Analysis, Safety, and Environmental Quality Cost-Benefit Analysis as a Form of Commodification Autonomy, Labor Markets, and the Value of Life Citizens, Consumers, and the Value of the Environment Toward Democratic Alternatives to Cost-Benefit Analysis Conclusion Notes References Index Reviews of this book: Anderson/auhtor is anxious to combat what she sees as a tendency for commercial values to invade areas of human life where they do not belong...A useful contribution to debate about the proper scope of the market. "Not everything is a commodity, insists Anderson, and her brief should shake up social science technocrats." DD--Philadelphia Inquirer "The book is rich in both argument and application." DD--Alan Hamlin, Times Higher Education Supplement "In this rich and insightful book Elizabeth Anderson develops an original account of value and rational action and then employs this account to address the pragmatic political question of what the proper range of the market should be. Anderson's principal targets are consequentialism, monism and the crude 'economistic' reasoning which underpins much contemporary social policy...This is an important book...For anyone interested in political philosophy this is essential reading." DD--A. J. Walsh, Australasian Journal of Philosophy --Hugo Dixon, Financial Times [UK] Reviews of this book: Not everything is a commodity, insists Anderson, and her brief should shake up social science technocrats. --Philadelphia Inquirer Reviews of this book: The book is rich in both argument and application. --Alan Hamlin, Times Higher Education Supplement Reviews of this book: In this rich and insightful book Elizabeth Anderson develops an original account of value and rational action and then employs this account to address the pragmatic political question of what the proper range of the market should be. Anderson's principal targets are consequentialism, monism and the crude 'economistic' reasoning which underpins much contemporary social policy...This is an important book...For anyone interested in political philosophy this is essential reading. --A. J. Walsh, Australasian Journal of Philosophy
The volume gives an exposition of the achievement and present relevance of the Newer Historical School of Economics and of the theory of the human sciences that accompanied its development. It describes the methodology of economics and the social sciences, the economic ethics, and the theory of the social and human sciences in the Historical School. It shows how its emphasis moved from an ethical economics or ethical economy to the methodology of the social and economic sciences.
Economics is often accused of being "a-ethical"--lacking a moral perspective--if not altogether immoral. Its detractors criticize economic models of pure and perfect competition, and claim that economics should be concerned with social effects and strive to be equitable. Yet, these critics fail to understand that the discipline has many dimensions. Economics has also developed a group of concerns directly related to ethics. The presence of practical ethics is evident in the economic analysis of behavior that incorporates ethical preference, altruism, and a responsible calculation based on norms. It is fair today that economics differentiates ethics from purely financial matters, and the discipline can be associated with morality in man's daily life. Volume 14 of the distinguished Praxiology series, examine the concept of positive ethics in economics. While normative ethics moralizes economics, trying to render it more "just," positive ethics is first and foremost a model for the construction of theoretical economic reasoning: It reflects on ethical practices within economics, and introduces a model of reasoning that takes individual ethical behavior and its aftereffects into account. The book is divided into three parts. In "Altruism," the contributors discuss the notion of unselfish concern for the welfare of others, and its place in economic practice. In "Commitment," the authors discuss reason as being central to economic theory, as well as the position of ethical behavior. In "Responsibility," the idea that man is not an island unto himself, but a being involved in a set of relationships, is examined. If a person is simultaneously responsible for himself and others, then how far does his responsibility extend? Essays on Positive Ethics in Economics is thought-provoking volume that will be of interest to economists, policymakers, philosophers, and students of ethics and morality. JÚr¶me Ballet is senior lecturer in economics at the University of Versailles and senior research fellow at the C3ED (Economics and Ethics Center for Environment and Development). He is the editor of the online journal Ethics and Economics and has published several books and articles on ethics and economics. Damien Bazin is a research fellow at the C3ED, where his specialization is economic philosophy. He is associate editor of Ethics and Economics.
In this book, the author argues that welfare economics can be enriched by paying more explicit attention to ethics, and that modern ethical studies can also benefit from a closer contact with economies. He argues further that even predictive and descriptive economics can be helped by making more room for welfare-economic considerations in the explanation of behaviour.
In the global financial crisis, the need to develop a new kind of economy with a closer relation between ethics and economics has become an important challenge to the international society. This book contributes to this debate by investigating different aspects of global business ethics and corporate social responsibility which are becoming more and more important in the ongoing discussions on the relation between market institutions and democratic governments. The different chapters of the book deal with fundamental philosophical issues of the ethics of the market economy, including discussions of the role of the social sciences and economics in contributing to a sustainable economics and global responsibility in the twenty-first century. In this sense, the book takes up the transnational debate on ethics and economics in order to contribute to a more balanced, fair, just and conscientious development in the world. The book starts with a European perspective on these issues, based on philosophical, sociological and economic views from Europe. These views are further developed in order to share thoughts of how to improve corporate social responsibility, welfare and justice, and the advancement of ethical principles in the international context. It is argued that in the international community, good corporate citizenship as social and environmental responsibility is realized through individual and organizational cosmopolitan responsibility for fostering the common good for humanity. The chapters of the book were originally presented at a conference in Copenhagen, organized together with the German Cultural Institute - the Goethe Institute of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Business School and Roskilde University, Denmark.
This volume pulls together a remarkable collection of contributors designed to challenge the positive-normative dichotomy in economic methodology. . . The intent of this publication is to provide a reference manual for those seeking insights into the connections between economics and ethics. It succeeds in that goal and should become a starting point for anyone who believes that mainstream economics needs methodological reorientation. . . Anyone interested in ethics and economic methodology would do well to have this reference book handy. Highly recommended. J. Halteman, Choice This new Handbook of Economics and Ethics makes a substantial contribution as a wide-ranging up-to-date reference work, including original developments, on these two fundamentally interconnected fields. This contribution is particularly timely, given the increasing attention being paid to economics as a moral science. The Handbook contains seventy-five expert entries on subjects ranging from the history of economics and philosophy to conceptual analysis of ethics in various aspects of modern economics, while representing a diversity of views. Sheila Dow, University of Stirling, UK The Handbook of Economics and Ethics portrays an understanding of economic methodology in which facts and values, though distinct, are closely interconnected in a variety of ways. From theory building to data collection, and from modelling to policy evaluation, this encyclopaedic Handbook is at the intersection of economics and ethics. Irene van Staveren and Jan Peil bring together 75 unique and original papers to provide up-to-date insights on topics such as markets, globalization, human development, rationality, efficiency, and corporate social responsibility. The book presents contributions from an array of international scholars using methodological and theoretical approaches, and convincingly demonstrates the death of the positive/normative dichotomy that so long held economics in its grip. This invaluable resource will strongly appeal to students of economics and economic methodology, philosophy of science and ethics. It will also be of great benefit to academics and policy-makers involved in economic policies and ethics.
The Ethics of Economic Responsibility raises fundamental ethical questions related to the conceptualization of economic responsibility, that is: the imperative to fulfil certain economic obligations. It builds on a basic characterization of the question of ethics in order to introduce responsibility as a constitutive element for a new determination of economic knowledge. Drawing on the metaphysical tradition of philosophy, the book explores the distinction between "operability-based-responsibility" and "end-in-itself-based responsibility" and also considers what is tentatively called "being-related responsibility". By presenting these arguments about the notion of economic responsibility, the book contributes to the growing calls for ethical questions to not be merely complementary to the ongoing discourse of economic sciences, but rather to sit at its core, in such a way as to restore the intrinsic ethical dimension of economics itself. The book marks a significant contribution to the literature on the philosophy of economics, applied ethics more broadly, and the critical discourse concerning mainstream economics.
This book inquires into the Capability Approach, a value theory of freedom, which crystalizes the interests of Marx, Welfare Economics, Social Choice, and Ethics. The capability approach has attracted many people as a promising interdisciplinary approach to human well-being and social worlds, finely overarching ethical and economic concerns. It has well challenged essential characteristics of welfare economics, which focuses on the criterion of efficiency with the concept of utility, by explicitly incorporating normative criteria such as agency, well-being and real freedom into positive analysis. However, it has a bit operational and methodological difficulties such that how to estimate an individual capability set which includes potential multi-dimensional functioning vectors. This book reminds the reader of what traditional economics has left behind, by examining historical backgrounds, scrutinizing philosophical foundations and providing an operational formulation of the capability approach: indispensable for understanding what the capability approach is about and what it can achieve.
Exploring Polanyi's lesser-known works as well as The Great Transformation, Baum provides a more complete and nuanced understanding of Polanyi's thought. He examines Polanyi's interpretation of modern economic and social history, clarifies the ethical presuppositions present in Polanyi's work, and addresses how Polanyi's understanding of the relation between ethics and economics touches on many issues relevant to the contemporary debate about the world's economic future. Baum argues that we should look to Polanyi's understanding of modern capitalism to reinstate the social discourse and, in political practice, the principles of reciprocity and solidarity. He points to examples, both in Canada and abroad, of attempts to formulate alternative models of economic development and to create new forms of institutional and cultural intervention. Karl Polanyi on Ethics and Economics provides fascinating insights into Polanyi's work and today's central social and political issues. It will be of great interest to sociologists, economists, political scientists, and philosophers.
Offering a compelling critique of orthodox economic analysis in the public realm, Mike Berry exposes the lack of development in economic thinking in public policy since the economic crisis of 2008. Focusing on both the ethically unacceptable outcomes of recent public policy and the threat of populism and rising nationalism, this book offers noteworthy suggestions for an alternative social democratic future. Both students and practitioners of heterodox economics and public policy will find this a compelling insight into the ethical concerns and social impacts raised by the political ascendency of neoliberal policies in recent decades.--