Search Results for: Nuclear Techniques And In Vitro Culture For Plant Improvement

In Vitro Culture of Trees

In Vitro Culture of Trees

Author: J.M. Bonga

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401580588

Category: Nature

Page: 238

View: 339

Woody plants provide many challenges to the tissue culturist. Although there are many excellent tissue culture books and manuals available, these are generally strongly biased towards herbacious crops. Consequently, they often do not pay sufficient attention to the problems that specifically apply to in vitro culture of tree species. Culture of the latter often poses problems which are either absent or of lesser significance when culturing herbacious species. When trees in the field are used as explant source, the problems can be especially severe. For example, the physiological condition of the explants is difficult to control because of variation in weather and biotic factors. Furthermore, it is often difficult to obtain explants free of contaminants from field grown trees. Lack of genetic uniformity and maturation are additional problems one often has to deal with when culturing tree cells or tissues. These problems are emphasized in this text. In vitro culture of trees is not viewed in isolation. It is considered in conjunction with breeding, traditional cloning and other common tree improvement techniques. The text discusses theoretical as well as practical aspects of the in vitro culture of trees.

The Impact of Biotechnology on Agriculture

The Impact of Biotechnology on Agriculture

Author: Rajbir S. Sangwan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400905870

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 280

In 1988, we were contacted by the "Societe Botanique de France" and the French section of The International Association of Plant Tissue Culture (IAPTC) to organise a symposium on "Biotechnology and its impact in Agriculture". The committee members of these two French associations had the vision to realize that this was a time to depart from the traditional themes in plant science. Moreover, since one of the major areas of our interest for the past few years has been that of "Plant biotechnology", we welcomed the idea of organizing this meeting. Another reason for the acceptance of this challenge was the location of Amiens in Picardy, and the enthusiasm of the local governing authorities. Picardy region is one of the major agricultural zones in France, and indeed of Europe. This fact and several other aspects of Picardy Agriculture suggested that this conference would be an excellent opportunity to combine the basic aspects of plant tissue culture and genetic engineering with the applications for plant improvement.

Applied Mutation Breeding for Vegetatively Propagated Crops

Applied Mutation Breeding for Vegetatively Propagated Crops

Author: C. Broertjes

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781483289991

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 376

View: 635

When the first edition of this book appeared in 1978, it was warmly received. Most readers and reviewers especially valued the extensive coverage of the literature in the chapters dealing with the different crops. ``... a valuable and timely addition to plant breeders and of outstanding value to breeders of ornamental plants. The book's special strength resides in the extensive review of literature ...'' (International Journal for Breeding Research). This is also reflected by the many times that the work has been referred to in other publications. This new edition provides plant breeders as well as scientists with an up-to-date overview of methods and results of the application of mutation breeding in order to genetically improve vegetatively propagated crops. General principles and background information about mutation breeding in general, methods of treatment, material to be treated and results are discussed in the introductory chapters, followed by a description of the specific situation in each of the vegetatively propagated crops ever used in a mutation breeding project. This volume brings together all the important and relevant literature in the field. It provides a complete account of mutation breeding of vegetatively produced crops, presenting conclusions about the value of the method, its possibilities, limitations and shortcomings and the possible difficulties of further application in various crops. The initial chapters deal with the interactions between mutagenic treatment and plant material, such as aspects of mutagenic treatment, post-irradiation behaviour of shoot apices and adventitious bud techniques. All available literature is then discussed crop by crop and critically evaluated. Almost 1700 references are covered and whenever possible suggestions for more efficient application of mutation breeding methods are given.

Somaclonal Variation and Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement

Somaclonal Variation and Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement

Author: S.M. Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401591256

Category: Science

Page: 620

View: 480

Genetic variability is an important parameter for plant breeders in any con ventional crop improvement programme. Very often the desired variation is un available in the right combination, or simply does not exist at all. However, plant breeders have successfully recombined the desired genes from cultivated crop gerrnplasm and related wild species by sexual hybridization, and have been able to develop new cultivars with desirable agronomie traits, such as high yield, disease, pest, and drought resistance. So far, conventional breeding methods have managed to feed the world's ever-growing population. Continued population growth, no further scope of expanding arable land, soil degradation, environ mental pollution and global warrning are causes of concern to plant biologists and planners. Plant breeders are under continuous pressure to improve and develop new cultivars for sustainable food production. However, it takes several years to develop a new cultivar. Therefore, they have to look for new technologies, which could be combined with conventional methods to create more genetic variability, and reduce the time in developing new cultivars, with early-maturity, and improved yield. The first report on induced mutation of a gene by HJ. Muller in 1927 was a major mi1estone in enhancing variation, and also indicated the potential applica tions of mutagenesis in plant improvement. Radiation sources, such as X-rays, gamma rays and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens (e. g. , ethyl methane sulphonate) have been widely used to induce mutations.

Somatic Hybridization in Crop Improvement I

Somatic Hybridization in Crop Improvement I

Author: Y. P. S. Bajaj

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642579455

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 533

View: 132

Thirty-five chapters on various aspects of fusion of plant protoplasts and somatic hybridization deal with the regeneration of interspecific and intergeneric somatic hybrids and cybrids in various plants: cereals, grasses, legumes, potato, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, Brassica, Datura, Hyoscyamus, Nicotiana, Catharanthus, Rauwolfia, Citrus, Poncirus, Prunus, Pyrus, Populus, algae, bryophytes, and ferns. The implications of somatic hybridization in gene transfer in wide crosses and for the induction of genetic variability in various crops are discussed. The book is an invaluable source of information for advanced students, teachers, and research scientists in the field of plant breeding, genetic engineering, plant tissue culture, and general plant biotechnology.

Potato

Potato

Author: Y. P. S. Bajaj

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642727733

Category: Science

Page: 509

View: 657

Deals with biotechnological approaches incorporated into po- tato improvement progammes. These methods have far-reaching implications for the synthesis of improved, disease- resist- ant and nutritious cultivars of potato.

In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants

Author: S. Mohan Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401718608

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 572

The 18 chapters making up In Vitro Haploid Production in Higher Plants are divided into two sections. Section 1 (eight chapters) covers historical and fundamental aspects of haploidy in crop improvement. Section 2 deals with methods of haploid production, including anther culture, micropore culture, ovary culture, pollination with irradiated pollen, in vitro pollination, and special culture techniques, including polyhaploid production in the Triticeae by sexual hybridization, the influence of ethylene and gelling agents on anther culture, conditional lethal markers, and methods of chromosome doubling.