How nonstate military strategies overturn traditional perspectives on warfare Since September 11th, 2001, armed nonstate actors have received increased attention and discussion from scholars, policymakers, and the military. Underlying debates about nonstate warfare and how it should be countered is one crucial assumption: that state and nonstate actors fight very differently. In Nonstate Warfare, Stephen Biddle upturns this distinction, arguing that there is actually nothing intrinsic separating state or nonstate military behavior. Through an in-depth look at nonstate military conduct, Biddle shows that many nonstate armies now fight more "conventionally" than many state armies, and that the internal politics of nonstate actors—their institutional maturity and wartime stakes rather than their material weapons or equipment—determines tactics and strategies. Biddle frames nonstate and state methods along a continuum, spanning Fabian-style irregular warfare to Napoleonic-style warfare involving massed armies, and he presents a systematic theory to explain any given nonstate actor’s position on this spectrum. Showing that most warfare for at least a century has kept to the blended middle of the spectrum, Biddle argues that material and tribal culture explanations for nonstate warfare methods do not adequately explain observed patterns of warmaking. Investigating a range of historical examples from Lebanon and Iraq to Somalia, Croatia, and the Vietcong, Biddle demonstrates that viewing state and nonstate warfighting as mutually exclusive can lead to errors in policy and scholarship. A comprehensive account of combat methods and military rationale, Nonstate Warfare offers a new understanding for wartime military behavior.
Copublished with Editorial de la Universidad del Magdalena Global Perspectives on Landscapes of Warfare examines the effects of conflict on landscapes and the ways landscapes have shaped social and political boundaries over time. Contributors from different archaeological traditions introduce a variety of methodologies and theories to understand and explain how territories and geographies in antiquity were modified in response to threat. Drawing from eleven case studies from periods ranging over eight thousand years in the Americas, Asia, and Europe, contributors consider how social groups moved and concentrated residences, built infrastructure, invested resources, created alliances and negotiated with human and nonhuman entities for aid, formed and reformed borders, and memorialized sites and territories. Because landscapes of warfare deal with built environments, chapters are presented with rich graphic documentation—detailed maps, site plans, and artifacts—to support the analysis and interpretations. Territories that have been appropriated and transformed by communities at war illustrate how built landscapes not only reflect immediate events but also influence subsequent generations. With a diverse array of case studies and an explicit focus on landscapes, Global Perspectives on Landscapes of Warfare will be of great interest to students and scholars of conflict archaeology and the anthropology and history of violence across the globe. Contributors: Elizabeth Arkush, Viktor A. Borzunov, Igor V. Chechushkov, Tiffany Earley-Spadoni, Nam C. Kim, Lauren Kohut, Takehiko Matsugi, Kerry Nichols, Russell S. Quick, Lizzie Scholtus, James T. Williams
Scholars of different schools have extensively analyzed world systems as networks of communication under the fashionable heading `globalization.' Our collected new research pushes the argument one step further. Globalization is not a homogenization of all social life on earth. It is a heterogeneous process that connects the global and the local on different levels. To understand these contemporary developments this book employs innovative concepts, strategies of research, and explanations. Globalization is a metaphor for different borderstructures, new borderlines, and conditions of membership, which emerge in a global world-system. As a world-system expands it incorporates new territories and new peoples. The process of incorporation creates frontiers or boundaries of the world-system. These frontiers or boundary zones are the locus of resistance to incorporation, ethnogenesis, ethnic transformation, and ethnocide.
This book explores Turkish military innovation since the Cold War. The major questions addressed are how Türkiye has been able to innovate, the production of new weapon systems, its philosophical background, how the country overcame bureaucratic and economic obstacles, and how these innovations resonated in military doctrine and organization. Focusing on two main defense industry projects that trigger an overall change in the military doctrine and organization, the text examines the innovative inclinations of the Turkish military realm and reveals the societal, economic and political consequences of military innovation. This book fills a gap in the literature by providing an interdisciplinary and comprehensive overview of Turkish military innovation. Contributors include those involved in and affected by the military innovation process, as well as scholars who monitor the process using primary sources. Military Innovation in Türkiye will appeal to academics, politicians and military professionals interested in understanding the evolution of the Turkish military.
This textbook provides a thorough grounding in the vocabulary, concepts, issues and debates associated with modern land warfare. The second edition has been updated and revised, and includes new chapters on non-western perspectives and hybrid warfare. Drawing on a range of case studies spanning the First World War through to contemporary conflicts in Syria, Ukraine, and Nagorno-Karabakh, the book explores what is unique about the land domain and how this has shaped the theory and practice of military operations conducted upon it. It also looks at land warfare across the spectrum of its conduct, including conventional campaigning, counterinsurgency, and peace support and stabilisation operations. Key themes and debates identified and analysed include: the tensions between change and continuity; the role of technology in land warfare; the relevance of culture and context; the difficulties in translating theory into effective military practice; in-depth discussions on issues of immediate contemporary significance, including hybrid warfare, emerging military technologies, and the military reform processes of the US, Russian, and Chinese land forces. This book will be essential reading for military practitioners and for students of land warfare, military history, war studies and strategic studies.
Why do we fight? Have we always been fighting one another? This book examines the origins and development of human forms of organized violence from an anthropological and archaeological perspective. Kim and Kissel argue that human warfare is qualitatively different from forms of lethal, intergroup violence seen elsewhere in the natural world, and that its emergence is intimately connected to how humans evolved and to the emergence of human nature itself.
Have globalization, virulent ethnic differences, and globally operating insurgents fundamentally changed the nature of war in the last decade? Interpretations of war as driven by politics and state rationale, formulated most importantly by the 19th century practitioner Carl von Clausewitz, have received strong criticism. Political explanations have been said to fall short in explaining conflicts in the Balkans, Africa, Asia and the attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States. This book re-evaluates these criticisms not only by scrutinising Clausewitz's arguments and their applicability, but also by a careful reading of the criticism itself. In doing so, it presents empirical evidence on the basis of several case studies, addressing various aspects of modern war, such as the actors, conduct and purposes of war.
A fresh and fascinating history of crime and violence in England through the office of the coroner In his fascinating debut, Matthew Lockwood explores the history of crime, homicide, and suicide in England over four centuries through the office of the coroner. While the office was established to investigate violent or suspicious deaths, Lockwood asserts that the demands of competing parties gradually shaped its systems and transformed England into a modern state earlier than is commonly acknowledged. Weaving together strands of social, legal, economic, and political history, this book will interest scholars across a range of fields.
In examining the history of northeastern North America in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries, it is important to take into account diverse influences and experiences. Not only was the relationship between native inhabitants and colonial settlers a defining characteristic of Acadia/Nova Scotia and New England in this era, but it was also a relationship shaped by wider continental and oceanic connections. The essays in this volume deal with topics such as colonial habitation, imperial exchange, and aboriginal engagement, all of which were pervasive phenomena of the time. John G. Reid argues that these were complicated processes that interacted freely with one another, shaping the human experience at different times and places. Northeastern North America was an arena of distinctive complexities in the early modern period, and this collection uses it as an example of a manageable and logical basis for historical study. Reid also explores the significance of anniversary observances and commemorations that have served as vehicles of reflection on the lasting implications of historical developments in the early modern period. These and other insights amount to a fresh perspective on the region and offer a deeper understanding of North American history.
Each era brings with it new techniques and methods of waging a war. While military scholars and experts have mastered land, sea, air and space warfare, time has come that they studied the art of cyberwar too. Our neighbours have acquired the capabilities to undertake this new form of asymmetric form of warfare. India too therefore needs to acquire the capabilities to counter their threat. Cyber space seems to have invaded every aspect of our life. More and more systems whether public or private are getting automated and networked. This high dependence of our critical infrastructure on Information and Communication Technology exposes it to the vulnerabilities of cyberspace. Enemy now can target such infrastructure through the cyberspace and degrade/ destroy them. This implies that the critical information infrastructure of the country and military networks today are both equally vulnerable to enemy’s cyberattacks. India therefore must protect its critical information infrastructure as she would protect the military infrastructure in the battlefield. Public – Private Partnership model is the only model which would succeed in doing so. While the Government needs to lay down the policies and frame the right laws, private sector needs to invest into cyber security. Organisations at national level and at the level of armed forces need to be raised which can protect our assets and are also capable of undertaking offensive cyber operations. This book is an attempt to understand various nuances of cyber warfare and how it affects our national security. Based on the cyber threat environment, the books recommends a framework of cyber doctrine and cyber strategies as well as organisational structure of various organisations which a nation needs to invest in.
Many saw the United States' decisive victory in Desert Storm (1991) as not only vindication of American defense policy since Vietnam but also confirmation of a revolution in military affairs (RMA). Just as information-age technologies were revolutionizing civilian life, the Gulf War appeared to reflect similarly profound changes in warfare. A debate has raged ever since about a contemporary RMA and its implications for American defense policy. Addressing these issues, The Iraq Wars and America's Military Revolution is a comprehensive study of the Iraq Wars in the context of the RMA debate. Focusing on the creation of a reconnaissance-strike complex and conceptions of parallel or nonlinear warfare, Keith L. Shimko finds a persuasive case for a contemporary RMA while recognizing its limitations as well as promise.