This book introduces the Statistical Drake Equation where, from a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake Equation is turned into the product of seven positive random variables. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are demonstrated and it is proven that the new random variable N for the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy must follow the lognormal probability distribution when the number of factors in the Drake equation is allowed to increase at will. Mathematical SETI also studies the proposed FOCAL (Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens) space mission to the nearest Sun Focal Sphere at 550 AU and describes its consequences for future interstellar precursor missions and truly interstellar missions. In addition the author shows how SETI signal processing may be dramatically improved by use of the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) rather than Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Finally, he describes the efforts made to persuade the United Nations to make the central part of the Moon Far Side a UN-protected zone, in order to preserve the unique radio-noise-free environment for future scientific use.
Mathematics is as much a part of our humanity as music and art. And it is our mathematics that might be understandable, even familiar, to a distant race and might provide the basis for mutual communication. This book discusses, in a conversational way, the role of mathematics in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The author explores the science behind that search, its history, and the many questions associated with it, including those regarding the nature of language and the philosophical/psychological motivation behind this search.
This book offers a vision of how evolutionary life processes can be modelled. It presents a mathematical description that can be used not only for the full evolution of life on Earth from RNA to modern human societies, but also the possible evolution of life on exoplanets, thus leading to SETI, the current Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence. The main premise underlying this mathematical theory is that the Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) can be applied as a key stochastic process to model the evolution of life. In the resulting Evo-SETI Theory, the life of any living thing (a cell, an animal, a human, a civilization of humans, or even an ET civilization) is represented by a b-lognormal, i.e., a lognormal probability density function starting at a precise instant (b, birth) then increasing up to a peak time, then decreasing to senility time and then continuing as a straight line down to the time of death. Using this theory, Claudio Maccone arrives at remarkable hypotheses on the development of life and civilizations, the possibility of extraterrestrial life, and when computers will take over the reins from us humans (Singularity). The book develops the mathematical Evo-SETI Theory by integrating a set of articles that the author has published in various journals on Astrobiology and Astronautical Research.
This book presents the latest knowledge of the newly discovered Earth-like exoplanets and reviews improvements in both radio and optical SETI. A key aim is to stimulate fresh discussion on algorithms that will be of high value in this extremely complicated search. Exoplanets resembling Earth could well be able to sustain life and support the evolution of technological civilizations, but to date, all searches for such life forms have proved fruitless. The failings of SETI observations are well recognized, and a new search approach is necessary. In this book, different detection algorithms that exploit state-of-the-art, low-cost, and extremely fast multiprocessors are examined and compared. Novel methods such as the agnostic entropy and high-sensitivity blind signal extraction algorithms should represent a quantum leap forward in SETI. The book is of interest to all researchers in the field and hopefully stimulates significant progress in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
The law of outer space is rapidly evolving to adapt to changes in the economic drivers as well as advancements in technological capabilities. The contents of this book are a reflection of this changing environment as evidenced in the writings of the second and third generations of space lawyers. Theoretical aspects of space law are explored by chapters relating to fundamental concepts central to the corpus juris spatialis. Practical aspects of space law are probed by examinations into international and domestic regulation of commercial activities, with particular emphasis on African, Asian, and European perspectives. International policy considerations are scrutinized in relation to military uses of outer space. The scientific Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is the subject of a concise history of the discipline vis-a-vis the role of the SETI Permanent Committee of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA), and also of a study of the policy and other ramifications of social media in the event of the discovery of intelligent extraterrestrial beings. The book concludes with the republication of the seminal and highly influential Relations With Alien Intelligences The Scientific Basis of Metalaw by Dr. Ernst Fasan, first published in 1970. Scholar, author, and attorney Ernst Fasan was among the original space lawyers, a small, pioneering group of visionaries who recognized that the movement of man into space must be accomplished without the shackles of history and in an environment free from the threat of the use of space as an instrument of armed aggression. The influence of Dr. Fasan has extended beyond the international legal community to the broader scientific community, especially to the field of astrobiology, as he pursued groundbreaking investigations into what could be the ultimate in legal relationships - metalaw - the interaction of sentient beings from different planets. The contributors to this Liber Amicorum are among those who can trace their own work to the foundations of space law placed in part by Ernst Fasan.
Bestselling author Michael Shermer's exploration of science and morality that demonstrates how the scientific way of thinking has made people, and society as a whole, more moral From Galileo and Newton to Thomas Hobbes and Martin Luther King, Jr., thinkers throughout history have consciously employed scientific techniques to better understand the non-physical world. The Age of Reason and the Enlightenment led theorists to apply scientific reasoning to the non-scientific disciplines of politics, economics, and moral philosophy. Instead of relying on the woodcuts of dissected bodies in old medical texts, physicians opened bodies themselves to see what was there; instead of divining truth through the authority of an ancient holy book or philosophical treatise, people began to explore the book of nature for themselves through travel and exploration; instead of the supernatural belief in the divine right of kings, people employed a natural belief in the right of democracy. In The Moral Arc, Shermer will explain how abstract reasoning, rationality, empiricism, skepticism--scientific ways of thinking--have profoundly changed the way we perceive morality and, indeed, move us ever closer to a more just world.
The book provides an accumulation of articles, included in Focus on Mathematics Pedagogy and Content, a newsletter for teachers, published by Texas A&M University. Each article presents a discussion of a middle or high school mathematics topic. Many of the articles are written by professors at Texas A&M University. The book is broken into three parts, with the first part focusing on content and pedagogy, related to the NCTM content strands of Number, Algebra, Geometry, Measurement, and Statistics and Probability. Articles include an in-depth presentation of mathematical content, as well as suggested instructional strategies. Thus, the integration of content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge is emphasized. The second and third parts apply to assessments, mathematical games, teaching tips, and technological applications. While other pedagogical reference books may provide an in-depth look at how to teach a topic, this book includes articles that also explain a topic, in great length. Thus, teachers may develop content knowledge first and then re-read each article, in order to learn appropriate instructional strategies to use. Many articles include technological applications, which are interspersed throughout the book. In addition, a special section, which includes helpful information, available tools, training sessions, and other references, for using technology in mathematics, is also presented.
ThisvolumecontainstheproceedingsofMPC2008,the9thInternationalConf- enceontheMathematicsofProgramConstruction.Thisseriesofconferencesaims to promote the development of mathematical principles and techniques that are demonstrably useful in the process of constructing computer programs, whether implemented in hardware or software. The focus is on techniques that combine precision with conciseness, enabling programs to be constructed by formal c- culation.Within this theme,the scopeofthe seriesisverydiverse,including p- grammingmethodology,programspeci?cationandtransformation,programming paradigms,programmingcalculi,andprogramminglanguagesemantics. The quality of the papers submitted to the conference was in general very high, and the number of submissions was comparable to that for the previous conference. Each paper was refereed by at least four, and often more, committee members. This volume contains 18 papers selected for presentation by the Program Committee from 41 submissions, 1 invited paper which was reviewed as well, and the abstracts for two invited talks. The conference took place in Marseille-Luminy, France. The previous eight conferences were held in 1989 in Twente, The Netherlands; in 1992 in Oxford, UK; in 1995 in Kloster Irsee, Germany; in 1998 in Marstrand near Got ¨ eborg, Sweden; in 2000 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal; in 2002 in Dagstuhl, Germany; in 2004, in Stirling, UK; and in 2006 in Kuressaare, Estonia. The proceedings of these conferences were published as LNCS 375, 669, 947, 1422, 1837, 2386, 3125 and 4014, respectively. We aregratefulto the members ofthe ProgramCommittee andtheir referees for their care and diligence in reviewing the submitted papers.
This book introduces a 'Big History' perspective to understand the acceleration of social, technological and economic trends towards a near-term singularity, marking a radical turning point in the evolution of our planet. It traces the emergence of accelerating innovation rates through global history and highlights major historical transformations throughout the evolution of life, humans, and civilization. The authors pursue an interdisciplinary approach, also drawing on concepts from physics and evolutionary biology, to offer potential models of the underlying mechanisms driving this acceleration, along with potential clues on how it might progress. The contributions gathered here are divided into five parts, the first of which studies historical mega-trends in relation to a variety of aspects including technology, population, energy, and information. The second part is dedicated to a variety of models that can help understand the potential mechanisms, and support extrapolation. In turn, the third part explores various potential future scenarios, along with the paths and decisions that are required. The fourth part presents philosophical perspectives on the potential deeper meaning and implications of the trend towards singularity, while the fifth and last part discusses the implications of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Given its scope, the book will appeal to scholars from various disciplines interested in historical trends, technological change and evolutionary processes.
From ancient times to the present day, scientifically inclined women in many cultures have had to battle against the traditional belief that men are more cognitively adept than women. At times throughout history, women were persecuted for their attempts to break down traditional gender barriers. Today, women scientists and mathematicians must continue to defend the quality of their work and demand the respect they deserve in the mathematical and scientific communities.A to Z of Women in Science and Math, Revised Edition profiles 195 women who fought against these stereotypes throughout history and all over the world to forge new discoveries and theories that would eventually change the way we view science. This thoroughly revised book updates the story of each individual to the present day and features 38 new profiles. Among the profiles included are those of chemists, astronomers, geologists, environmental scientists, and a range of other professions and careers. In addition, new photographs have been added, and the bibliography has been updated. Subject indexes allow the reader to search by such professions as microbiology and paleontology.Additional subject indexes organize individuals by country of birth, country of major scientific activity, and year of birth.
The majority of books dealing with prospects for interstellar flight tackle the problem of the propulsion systems that will be needed to send a craft on an interstellar trajectory. The proposed book looks at two other, equally important aspects of such space missions, and each forms half of this two part book. Part 1 looks at the ways in which it is possible to exploit the focusing effect of the Sun as a gravitational lens for scientific missions to distances of 550 AU and beyond into interstellar space. The author explains the mechanism of the Sun as a gravitational lens, the scientific investigations which may be carried out along the way to a distance of 550 AU (and at the 550 AU sphere itself), the requirements for exiting the Solar System at the highest speed and a range of project ideas for missions entering interstellar space. Part 2 of the book deals with the problems of communicating between an interstellar spaceship and the Earth, especially at very high speeds. Here the author assesses a range of mathematical tools relating to the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) for optimal telecommunications, technical topics that may one day enable humans flying around the Galaxy to keep in contact with the Earth. This part of the book opens with a summary of the author’s 2003 Pešek Lecture presented at the IAC in Bremen, which introduces the concept of KLT for engineers and ‘newcomers’ to the subject. It is planned to include a DVD containing the full mathematical derivations of the KLT for those interested in this important mathematical tool whilst the text itself will contain the various results without outlines of the mathematical proofs. Astronautical engineers will thus be able to see the application of the results without getting bogged down in the mathematics.
A falling apple inspired the law of gravity—or so the story goes. Is it true? Perhaps not. But why do such stories endure as explanations of how science happens? Newton’s Apple and Other Myths about Science brushes away popular misconceptions to provide a clearer picture of scientific breakthroughs from ancient times to the present.