**Author**: George Tourlakis

**Publisher:** Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:** 113943943X

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 596

**View:** 247

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## Lectures in Logic and Set Theory: Volume 2, Set Theory

This two-volume work bridges the gap between introductory expositions of logic or set theory on one hand, and the research literature on the other. It can be used as a text in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course in mathematics, computer science, or philosophy. The volumes are written in a user-friendly conversational lecture style that makes them equally effective for self-study or class use. Volume II, on formal (ZFC) set theory, incorporates a self-contained 'chapter 0' on proof techniques so that it is based on formal logic, in the style of Bourbaki. The emphasis on basic techniques will provide the reader with a solid foundation in set theory and provides a context for the presentation of advanced topics such as absoluteness, relative consistency results, two expositions of Godel's constructible universe, numerous ways of viewing recursion, and a chapter on Cohen forcing.
## Lectures in Logic and Set Theory: Volume 1, Mathematical Logic

This two-volume work bridges the gap between introductory expositions of logic or set theory on one hand, and the research literature on the other. It can be used as a text in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course in mathematics, computer science, or philosophy. The volumes are written in a user-friendly conversational lecture style that makes them equally effective for self-study or class use. Volume 1 includes formal proof techniques, a section on applications of compactness (including nonstandard analysis), a generous dose of computability and its relation to the incompleteness phenomenon, and the first presentation of a complete proof of Godel's 2nd incompleteness since Hilbert and Bernay's Grundlagen theorem.
## The Logic of Infinity

This book conveys to the novice the big ideas in the rigorous mathematical theory of infinite sets.
## Fundamentals of Set and Number Theory

This comprehensive two-volume work is devoted to the most general beginnings of mathematics. It goes back to Hausdorff’s classic Set Theory (2nd ed., 1927), where set theory and the theory of functions were expounded as the fundamental parts of mathematics in such a way that there was no need for references to other sources. Along the lines of Hausdorff’s initial work (1st ed., 1914), measure and integration theory is also included here as the third fundamental part of contemporary mathematics.The material about sets and numbers is placed in Volume 1 and the material about functions and measures is placed in Volume 2. Contents Fundamentals of the theory of classes, sets, and numbers Characterization of all natural models of Neumann – Bernays – Godel and Zermelo – Fraenkel set theories Local theory of sets as a foundation for category theory and its connection with the Zermelo – Fraenkel set theory Compactness theorem for generalized second-order language
## Mathematical Logic

A comprehensive and user-friendly guide to the use of logic inmathematical reasoning Mathematical Logic presents a comprehensive introductionto formal methods of logic and their use as a reliable tool fordeductive reasoning. With its user-friendly approach, this booksuccessfully equips readers with the key concepts and methods forformulating valid mathematical arguments that can be used touncover truths across diverse areas of study such as mathematics,computer science, and philosophy. The book develops the logical tools for writing proofs byguiding readers through both the established "Hilbert" style ofproof writing, as well as the "equational" style that is emergingin computer science and engineering applications. Chapters havebeen organized into the two topical areas of Boolean logic andpredicate logic. Techniques situated outside formal logic areapplied to illustrate and demonstrate significant facts regardingthe power and limitations of logic, such as: Logic can certify truths and only truths. Logic can certify all absolute truths (completeness theorems ofPost and Gödel). Logic cannot certify all "conditional" truths, such as thosethat are specific to the Peano arithmetic. Therefore, logic hassome serious limitations, as shown through Gödel'sincompleteness theorem. Numerous examples and problem sets are provided throughout thetext, further facilitating readers' understanding of thecapabilities of logic to discover mathematical truths. In addition,an extensive appendix introduces Tarski semantics and proceeds withdetailed proofs of completeness and first incompleteness theorems,while also providing a self-contained introduction to the theory ofcomputability. With its thorough scope of coverage and accessible style,Mathematical Logic is an ideal book for courses inmathematics, computer science, and philosophy at theupper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuablereference for researchers and practitioners who wish to learn howto use logic in their everyday work.
## Fundamentals of Functions and Measure Theory

This comprehensive two-volume work is devoted to the most general beginnings of mathematics. It goes back to Hausdorff’s classic Set Theory (2nd ed., 1927), where set theory and the theory of functions were expounded as the fundamental parts of mathematics in such a way that there was no need for references to other sources. Along the lines of Hausdorff’s initial work (1st ed., 1914), measure and integration theory is also included here as the third fundamental part of contemporary mathematics. The material about sets and numbers is placed in Volume 1 and the material about functions and measures is placed in Volume 2. Contents Historical foreword on the centenary after Felix Hausdorff’s classic Set Theory Fundamentals of the theory of functions Fundamentals of the measure theory Historical notes on the Riesz – Radon – Frechet problem of characterization of Radon integrals as linear functionals
## Computability

This survey of computability theory offers the techniques and tools that computer scientists (as well as mathematicians and philosophers studying the mathematical foundations of computing) need to mathematically analyze computational processes and investigate the theoretical limitations of computing. Beginning with an introduction to the mathematisation of “mechanical process” using URM programs, this textbook explains basic theory such as primitive recursive functions and predicates and sequence-coding, partial recursive functions and predicates, and loop programs. Advanced chapters cover the Ackerman function, Tarski’s theorem on the non-representability of truth, Goedel’s incompleteness and Rosser’s incompleteness theorems, two short proofs of the incompleteness theorem that are based on Lob's deliverability conditions, Church’s thesis, the second recursion theorem and applications, a provably recursive universal function for the primitive recursive functions, Oracle computations and various classes of computable functionals, the Arithmetical hierarchy, Turing reducibility and Turing degrees and the priority method, a thorough exposition of various versions of the first recursive theorem, Blum’s complexity, Hierarchies of primitive recursive functions, and a machine-independent characterisation of Cobham's feasibly computable functions.
## Course of Mathematical Logic

This book is addressed primarily to researchers specializing in mathemat ical logic. It may also be of interest to students completing a Masters Degree in mathematics and desiring to embark on research in logic, as well as to teachers at universities and high schools, mathematicians in general, or philosophers wishing to gain a more rigorous conception of deductive reasoning. The material stems from lectures read from 1962 to 1968 at the Faculte des Sciences de Paris and since 1969 at the Universities of Provence and Paris-VI. The only prerequisites demanded of the reader are elementary combinatorial theory and set theory. We lay emphasis on the semantic aspect of logic rather than on syntax; in other words, we are concerned with the connection between formulas and the multirelations, or models, which satisfy them. In this context considerable importance attaches to the theory of relations, which yields a novel approach and algebraization of many concepts of logic. The present two-volume edition considerably widens the scope of the original [French] one-volume edition (1967: Relation, Formule logique, Compacite, Completude). The new Volume 1 (1971: Relation et Formule logique) reproduces the old Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8, redivided as follows: Word, formula (Chapter 1), Connection (Chapter 2), Relation, operator (Chapter 3), Free formula (Chapter 4), Logicalformula,denumer able-model theorem (L6wenheim-Skolem) (Chapter 5), Completeness theorem (G6del-Herbrand) and Interpolation theorem (Craig-Lyndon) (Chapter 6), Interpretability of relations (Chapter 7).
## Theory of Computation

Learn the skills and acquire the intuition to assess the theoretical limitations of computer programming Offering an accessible approach to the topic, Theory of Computation focuses on the metatheory of computing and the theoretical boundaries between what various computational models can do and not do—from the most general model, the URM (Unbounded Register Machines), to the finite automaton. A wealth of programming-like examples and easy-to-follow explanations build the general theory gradually, which guides readers through the modeling and mathematical analysis of computational phenomena and provides insights on what makes things tick and also what restrains the ability of computational processes. Recognizing the importance of acquired practical experience, the book begins with the metatheory of general purpose computer programs, using URMs as a straightforward, technology-independent model of modern high-level programming languages while also exploring the restrictions of the URM language. Once readers gain an understanding of computability theory—including the primitive recursive functions—the author presents automata and languages, covering the regular and context-free languages as well as the machines that recognize these languages. Several advanced topics such as reducibilities, the recursion theorem, complexity theory, and Cook's theorem are also discussed. Features of the book include: A review of basic discrete mathematics, covering logic and induction while omitting specialized combinatorial topics A thorough development of the modeling and mathematical analysis of computational phenomena, providing a solid foundation of un-computability The connection between un-computability and un-provability: Gödel's first incompleteness theorem The book provides numerous examples of specific URMs as well as other programming languages including Loop Programs, FA (Deterministic Finite Automata), NFA (Nondeterministic Finite Automata), and PDA (Pushdown Automata). Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their comprehension of the presented material, and an extensive bibliography suggests resources for further study. Assuming only a basic understanding of general computer programming and discrete mathematics, Theory of Computation serves as a valuable book for courses on theory of computation at the upper-undergraduate level. The book also serves as an excellent resource for programmers and computing professionals wishing to understand the theoretical limitations of their craft.
## Software Engineering 1

The art, craft, discipline, logic, practice, and science of developing large-scale software products needs a believable, professional base. The textbooks in this three-volume set combine informal, engineeringly sound practice with the rigour of formal, mathematics-based approaches. Volume 1 covers the basic principles and techniques of formal methods abstraction and modelling. First this book provides a sound, but simple basis of insight into discrete mathematics: numbers, sets, Cartesians, types, functions, the Lambda Calculus, algebras, and mathematical logic. Then it trains its readers in basic property- and model-oriented specification principles and techniques. The model-oriented concepts that are common to such specification languages as B, VDM-SL, and Z are explained here using the RAISE specification language (RSL). This book then covers the basic principles of applicative (functional), imperative, and concurrent (parallel) specification programming. Finally, the volume contains a comprehensive glossary of software engineering, and extensive indexes and references. These volumes are suitable for self-study by practicing software engineers and for use in university undergraduate and graduate courses on software engineering. Lecturers will be supported with a comprehensive guide to designing modules based on the textbooks, with solutions to many of the exercises presented, and with a complete set of lecture slides.
## David Hilbert's Lectures on the Foundations of Arithmetic and Logic 1917-1933

The core of Volume 3 consists of lecture notes for seven sets of lectures Hilbert gave (often in collaboration with Bernays) on the foundations of mathematics between 1917 and 1926. These texts make possible for the first time a detailed reconstruction of the rapid development of Hilbert’s foundational thought during this period, and show the increasing dominance of the metamathematical perspective in his logical work: the emergence of modern mathematical logic; the explicit raising of questions of completeness, consistency and decidability for logical systems; the investigation of the relative strengths of various logical calculi; the birth and evolution of proof theory, and the parallel emergence of Hilbert’s finitist standpoint. The lecture notes are accompanied by numerous supplementary documents, both published and unpublished, including a complete version of Bernays’s Habilitationschrift of 1918, the text of the first edition of Hilbert and Ackermann’s Grundzüge der theoretischen Logik (1928), and several shorter lectures by Hilbert from the later 1920s. These documents, which provide the background to Hilbert and Bernays’s monumental Grundlagen der Mathematik (1934, 1938), are essential for understanding the development of modern mathematical logic, and for reconstructing the interactions between Hilbert, Bernays, Brouwer, and Weyl in the philosophy of mathematics.
## Lectures on the Philosophy of Mathematics

An introduction to the philosophy of mathematics grounded in mathematics and motivated by mathematical inquiry and practice. In this book, Joel David Hamkins offers an introduction to the philosophy of mathematics that is grounded in mathematics and motivated by mathematical inquiry and practice. He treats philosophical issues as they arise organically in mathematics, discussing such topics as platonism, realism, logicism, structuralism, formalism, infinity, and intuitionism in mathematical contexts. He organizes the book by mathematical themes--numbers, rigor, geometry, proof, computability, incompleteness, and set theory--that give rise again and again to philosophical considerations.