There is a broad cultural region with related traditions of mythical beliefs interconnected by long-term contacts during prehistoric times. This area - called here the "Mythological Crescent" - is a zone of cultural convergence that extends from the ancient Middle East via Anatolia to southeastern Europe, opening into the wide cultural landscape of Eurasia.The very old interconnections between Eurasia and Anatolia are explored in this study for the first time. In a comparative view, striking similarities can be reconstructed for the ancient belief systems and the imagery of both regions which suggest convergent cosmological conceptualizations of high age. The beliefs and ritual practices of the indigenous peoples of Eurasia are rooted in the shamanism of the oldest cultural layers of the Palaeolithic. Although socioeconomic development in Anatolia was markedly different from cultural evolution in Eurasia, the hunters and gatherers in Anatolia who adopted sedentary lifeways did not entirely lose their ancient beliefs during the transition to plant cultivation (in the eighth millennium BCE). Archaic beliefs and imagery fused with new practices and innovations during the development of agrarian societies. One diagnostic motif which was perpetuated from the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic and beyond is represented by the production of female figurines (statuettes). Their significance for communal life has been linked to spiritual concepts of the continuity of life, the vegetation cycle, and the protection of the natural habitat of all living things as recorded in myths and historical folk art of Uralic and other peoples. The bear plays a significant role as a mythical animal in the imagery of Eurasia whereas this motif was lost in Anatolia during the transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages.
The Mythology of Venus is a collection of essays that summarizes the archaeoastronomy, calendar associations, religious and cultural icons, and myths identified with the planet Venus. The book concentrates on Western Europe, the Mediterranean, the Near East, and the East from the Paleolithic Age to the Iron Age. It reveals the archetype of a goddess associated with the planet Venus who is identified with transformation, spiritual resurrection, and enlightenment. The characteristics of the goddess are steeped in sexual metaphors which contain images of birth and re-birth, and they reveal a pattern of symbols that follows the journey of the planet Venus through its cycles in the night sky. Moreover, the journey of Venus and the corresponding icons associated with the goddess are part of an intricate pattern of symbolic language that is seen on ancient monuments and on the ancient calendars of several cultures. Temples from France and Ireland to Greece and Malta trace the journey of the planet Venus and the story of the goddess of Venus.
This reference offers reliable knowledge about women's diverse faith practices throughout history and prehistory, and across cultures. • Offers nearly 300 reference articles by international scholars of religion, women, and history • Provides an overview of the religious experiences of women across time, faiths, and cultures • Devotes sections to particular religious traditions to provide information about the role of women and the feminine devine within those faiths • Presents reference information about the experiences of women within religions • Directs the user to additional resources via suggestions for further reading and an end-of-work bibliography
Vol. IV of Pillars of the Past: Stonehenge and the Megalithic World examines the chronology of this period. Archaeologists maintain that these monuments, the pottery, graves, metal and stone tools, skeletons, etc., associated with them only make sense if we place these in the Late Neolithic Age, ca. 4000–1500 B.C. However, there is a wealth of evidence that denies this placement and instead points to the Megalithic Age falling in the post-Roman era/the Early Middle Ages ca. A.D. 600–900. All dating methods used to date the megalithic world have failed and this is admitted repeatedly by modern researchers. The astronomical alignments employed to date these monuments that were used to criticize Velikovsky’s chronological thesis have now fallen into ruins under the scrutiny of these authorities. The only non-controversial alignment that exists at Stonehenge apparently fits there between 500–700 A.D. Multiple lines of evidence are shown to place Stonehenge and the Megalithic Age in post-Roman times.
Most of us have come to realize patriarchy - rule by a male-dominated society revering solely a male God - is not working for Mother Earth or most of the people on the planet. How do we counter beliefs that there is no option but the authoritarian father? How does society go about making a course correction? How do ideas that permeate every level of society from womb to tomb, boardroom to bedroom, voting booth to the workplace shift into a more fair, equal, and just world of partnership, sharing, caring and peace? Those are exactly the questions discussed on the long-running radio show, /Voices of the Sacred Feminine/, hosted by Rev. Dr. Karen Tate in her show dedicated to the Sacred Feminine as deity, archetype and ideal. Never before has an internet radio show cast such a wide net to include so many voices whose ideals are in alignment with “sacred feminine liberation thealogy.” If we can imagine it, vision it, and restore ancient truths swept beneath the rug and kicked to the curb by patriarchy, then we can manifest it! Hear solutions from these visionaries, scholars, wayshowers, foremothers and activists - women and men - dedicated to reshaping our world... Noam Chomsky, Laura Flanders, Gloria Feldt, Jean Shinoda Bolen, Phyllis Chesler, Barbara G. Walker, Riane Eisler, Matthew Fox, Roy Bourgeois, Starhawk, Charles Eisenstein, Genevieve Vaughan, Carl Ruck, David Hillman, Judy Grahn, Nicki Scully, Normandi Ellis, Selena Fox, Patrick McCollum, Jann Aldredge-Clanton, Cristina Biaggi, Charlene Spretnak, Shirley Ranck, Elizabeth Fisher, Amy Peck, Art Noble, Jeanette Blonigen Clancy, Joan Norton, Andrew Gurevich, Gus diZerega, Lydia Ruyle, Vajra Ma, Ava, Donna Henes, Candace Kant, Sandra Spencer, Layne Redmond, Isadora Leidenfrost, ALisa Starkweather, Joan Marler, Tim Ward, James Rietveld and Karen Tate.
Covering prehistoric times to the modern era, this fascinating resource presents pro-and-con arguments regarding unresolved, historic controversies throughout the development of the world. • Includes 58 chapters in four volumes that address significant historical questions focused upon topics such as the Old Testament, the Roman Empire, the historic Buddha, William Shakespeare, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and weapons of mass destruction • Provides a pro-and-con debate format that encourages readers to evaluate the validity of arguments and evidence
Traditional scholarship on how ancient civilizations emerged is outmoded and new insights call for revision. According to the well-established paradigm, Mesopotamia is considered the cradle of civilization. Following the cliche of ex oriente lux ("light from the East") all major achievements of humankind spread from the Middle East. Modern archaeology, cultural science and historical linguistics indicate civilizations did not originate from a single prototype. Several models produced divergent patterns of advanced culture, developing both hierarchical and egalitarian societies. This study outlines a panorama of ancient civilizations, including the still little-known Danube civilization, now identified as the oldest advanced culture in Europe. In a comparative view, a new paradigm of research and a new cultural chronology of civilizations in the Old and New Worlds emerges, with climate change shown to be a continual influence on human lifeways.
Providing a multifaceted view of modern Finland, this book describes its history, culture, language, geography, natural history and the mythology of early peoples. Topics include Fenno-Scandia inhabitants and their environment, traditional naturalism and modern environmentalism, and the salient features of "Finnishness," including an analysis of the Finnish educational system and gender equality. Finland's art, architecture and music are highlighted, along with its peace-keeping missions worldwide. The country's several ethnic groups and their languages are discussed--the Saami, Finns, Finland-Swedes, Russian-speaking peoples, Jews and Gypsies. The author examines Finland's late but rapid development in commerce and industry, with a focus on the history of Nokia Corporation, which grew from a 19th-century manufacturer of pulpwood and rubber boots to a 21st-century international digital communications company.
In order to broaden our perspective and gain the deeper understanding necessary to function effectively in today's global arena, we need to focus on "big picture" trends and phenomenaÑreligion and philosophy, science and technology, political organization, art and culture, population changes, environmental interactions, human migrationsÑacross many countries and regions, rather than dwelling on the dates and details of traditional country-based history. This is what study of world history in the 21st century requiresÑand what ABC-CLIO's World History Encyclopedia provides.|
An unprecedented undertaking by academics reflecting an extraordinary vision of world history, this landmark multivolume encyclopedia focuses on specific themes of human development across cultures era by era, providing the most in-depth, expansive presentation available of the development of humanity from a global perspective. Well-known and widely respected historians worked together to create and guide the project in order to offer the most up-to-date visions available. • Contributions by a team of over 800 historians, anthropologists, sociologists, and other academics, focused on a world-based view of history, including well-known researchers as well as innovative newcomers who have made remarkable contributions. This multi-faceted approach offers a work that combines orthodox views with creative new perspectives • Twenty-one volumes covering the breadth of human history, in nine eras: Beginnings of Human Society; Early Civilizations, 4000–1000 BCE; Classical Traditions, 1000 BCE–300 CE; Expanding Regional Civilizations, 300—1000; Intensified Hemispheric Interactions, 1000–1500; The First Global Age, 1450–1770; The Age of Revolutions, 1750–1914; Crisis and Achievement, 1900–1945; Promises and Paradoxes, 1945–Present • General chronologies plotting large-scale changes in human organization, in areas such as population flow, technological development, and the evolution of social and political institutions • Hundreds of images and maps, plus charts and bibliographies • A wide range of primary source excerpts (some translated into English for the first time) giving students firsthand exposure to the raw materials of historical research
Platon zählt zu den einflussreichsten Philosophen aller Zeiten. Er beeinflusste maßgeblich Profil und Kanon der westlichen Philosophie. Die Kritik am sogenannten Platonismus wurde kontinuierlich von den Schwierigkeiten gespeist, die die Interpretation der philosophischen Schriften Platons bereitet. Gemeinhin wird er als rein rationaler Philosoph gesehen. Ein Philosoph war er in der Tat, ebenso jedoch ein Experte in der Annäherung an das Nicht-Rationale, unter anderem in Form von Mythen. So wurde er auch als "Mythenerfinder" und "Mythologe" bezeichnet. Platon war ein Visionär, der es wagte, das Reich des Nicht-Rationalen auf systematische und disziplinierte Art zu erforschen. Insgesamt lässt sich Platons philosophisches Vorhaben als Streben nach einer umfassenden Sicht des organischen Ganzen klassifizieren. Der Ausdruck „Gestalt“ scheint die Ganzheit am ehesten zu beschreiben. Platon kann als prominentester und auch als letzter Repräsentant der antiken Philosophie angesehen werden, der die Entwicklung einer Gestalt-Philosophie anstrebte. Plato is one of the most influential philosophers of all time. He decisively shaped the profile and canon of western philosophy. Criticism of what has become known as Platonism has been continuously nourished by the difficulties of interpreting this philosopher's writings. Plato is commonly viewed as a purely rational philosopher. A philosopher he was indeed, but Plato was also an expert in approaching the non-rational, in the form of mythology among others. Plato has been called a "mythmaker" and a "mythologist". Plato was a visionary who dared to explore the realm of the non-rational in a systematic and disciplined way. In an overall comparison, Plato's philosophical enterprise strives for a comprehensive perspective on the organic whole. The expression "Gestalt" seems to come closest to describing the wholeness. Plato may be considered to be the most prominent representative of classical philosophy to develop a Gestalt philosophy and also the last to do so in antiquity.