There is no doubt that the field of artificial membrane transport using synthetic ionophores has advanced remarkably in the past 15 years due primarily to the synthesis of new ionophores. Even though the theoretical framework substantially predated this activity, the merging of theory with transport experiment has often been sketchy. The purpose of this outline has been to examine key examples to illustrate the underlying principles and to suggest how experimental variables dominate the results obtained. To a very good approximation the assumption of a "diffusion" regime is often justified, is easily confirmed experimentally and provides a clear framework for exploitation of the inherent selectivity of a given ionophore. Thus for synthetic chemists who wish a "quick and nasty" experiment to examine the question of selectivity, the recipe is clear: a mixture containing all ions of interest in a standard experiment for each ligand of interest using a moderately stirred (100-200 rpm) cell and analysis of the mixture produced on the OUT side of the cell at a fixed, small extent of transport. Together with duplicates and controls, this modest set of experiments will place the results on an unambiguous footing from which clear conclusions about each ionophore's characteristics are readily obtained. For those with more detailed interests in the transport process the demands are correspondingly higher.
The Handbook of Chemical and Biological Sensors focuses on the development of sensors to recognize substances rather than physical quantities. This fully inclusive book examines devices that use a biological sensing element to detect and measure chemical and biological species as well as those that use a synthetic element to achieve a similar result. A first port of call for anyone with a specific interest, question, or problem relating to this area, this comprehensive source of reference serves as a guide for practicing scientists and as a text for many graduate courses. It presents relevant physics to chemists, chemistry to materials scientists, materials science to electronic engineers, and fabrication technology to all of the above. In addition, the handbook is useful both to newcomers and to experienced researchers who wish to broaden their knowledge of the constituent disciplines of this wide-ranging field.
An up-to-date, comprehensive guide to LITHIUM CHEMISTRY Although lithium has been the subject of numerous individualstudies, this intriguing element has rarely been examined from thebroad perspective many researchers require. Lithium Chemistry: ATheoretical and Experimental Overview fills this void by providingthe most thorough and up-to-date overview available of currenttheories and experimental data. Supported by nearly two hundred illustrations, this book draws uponthe expertise of prominent researchers in the field, and treats thefull range of modern applications and techniques. The result is aunique and invaluable guide to lithium studies for researchers andgraduate students working in the fields of organic, inorganic, andorgano-metallic chemistry. Lithium Chemistry: A Theoretical and Experimental Overview assumesa background in quantum chemistry and experimental physicalchemistry at the graduate level and includes coverage of thesemajor topics: * Bonding, structures, and energies in organolithium compounds * Theoretical studies of aggregates of lithium compounds * Comparison of lithium and hydrogen bonds * Lithium atom matrix reactions with small molecules * NMR of organolithium compounds * Aspects of the thermochemistry of lithium compounds * The structure of lithiated amines and lithiated ethers--fromcarbanions to carbenoids * Complexes of inorganic lithium salts * Structures of lithium salts of heteroatom compounds * Synthetic ionophores for lithium ions
Although there is general agreement that exogenous electric and electromagnetic fields influence and modulate the properties of biological systems. there is no concensus regarding the mechanisms by which such fields operate. It is the purpose of this volume to bring together and examine critically the mechanistic models and concepts that have been proposed. We have chosen to arrange the papers in terms of the level of biological organization emphasized by the contributors. Some papers overlap categories. but the progression from ions and membrane surfaces. through macromolecules and the membrane matrix to integrated systems. establishes a mechanistic chain of causality that links the basic interactions in the relatively well understood simple systems to the complex living systems. where all effects occur simultaneously. The backgrounds of the invited contributors include biochemistry. biophysics. cell biology. electrical engineering. electrochemistry. electrophysiology. medicine and physical chemistry. As a result of this diversity. the mechanistic models reflect the differing approaches used by these disciplines to explain the same phenomena. Areas of agreement define the common ground. while the areas of divergence provide opportunities for refining our ideas through further experimentation. To facilitate the interaction between the different points of view, the authors have clearly indicated those published observations that they are trying to explain. i.e. the experiments that have been critical in their thinking. This should establish a concensus regarding important observations. In the discussion of theories.
Reviews a variety of liquid membrane configurations, transport mechanisms, and experimental techniques. Describes separations of metal ions, anionic species, organic molecules, and gas mixtures that involve liquid membrane processes. Provides coverage of theory, including mechanisms, carrier design and synthesis, and applications in chemical separations. Covers a broad range of separation processes, including carbon dioxide from nitrogen, unsaturated hydrocarbons, individual transition and heavy metal cations, selenium from contaminated waters, radiotoxic species from nuclear wastes, and sugars from aqueous solutions. Presents state-of-the-art information for both the novice and practitioner.
A comprehensive guide to smart materials and how they are used in sample preparation, analytical processes, and applications This comprehensive, two-volume handbook provides detailed information on the present state of new materials tailored for selective sample preparation and the legal frame and environmental side effects of the use of smart materials for sample preparation in analytical chemistry, as well as their use in the analytical processes and applications. It covers both methodological and applied analytical aspects, relating to the development and application of new materials for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), their use in the different steps and techniques of the analytical process, and their application in specific fields such as water, food, air, pharmaceuticals, clinical sciences and forensics. Every chapter in Handbook of Smart Materials in Analytical Chemistry is written by experts in the field to provide a comprehensive picture of the present state of this key area of analytical sciences and to summarize current applications and research literature in a critical way. Volume 1 covers New Materials for Sample Preparation and Analysis. Volume 2 handles Analytical Processes and Applications. Focuses on the development and applications of smart materials in analytical chemistry Covers both, methodological and applied analytical aspects, for the development of new materials and their use in the different steps and techniques of the analytical process and their application in specific fields Features applications in key areas including water, air, environment, pharma, food, forensic, and clinical Presents the available tools for the use of new materials suitable to aid recognition process to the sample preparation and analysis A key resource for analytical chemists, applied laboratories, and instrument companies Handbook of Smart Materials in Analytical Chemistry, 2V Set is an excellent reference book for specialists and advanced students in the areas of analytical chemistry, including both research and application environments.