The Higgs boson is an undiscovered elementary particle, thought to be a vital piece of the closely fitting jigsaw of particle physics. Like all particles, it has wave properties akin to those ripples on the surface of a pond which has been disturbed; indeed, only when the ripples travel as a well defined group is it sensible to speak of a particle at all. In quantum language the analogue of the water surface which carries the waves is called a field. Each type of particle has its own corresponding field. The Higgs field is a particularly simple one -- it has the same properties viewed from every direction, and in important respects in indistinguishable from empty space. Thus physicists conceive of the Higgs field being "switched on", pervading all of space and endowing it with "grain" like that of a plank of wood. The direction of the grain in undetectable, and only becomes important once the Higgs' interactions with other particles are taken into account. for instance, particles call vector bosons can travel with the grain, in which case they move easily for large distances and may be observed as photons - that is, particles of light that we can see or record using a camera; or against, in which case their effective range is much shorter, and we call them W or Z particles. These play a central role in the physics of nuclear reactions, such as those occurring in the core of the sun. The Higgs field enables us to view these apparently unrelated phenomenon as two sides of the same coin; both may be described in terms of the properties of the same vector bosons. When particles of matter such as electrons or quarks (elementary constituents of protons and neutrons, which in turn constitute the atomic nucleus) travel through the grain, they are constantly flipped "head-over-heels". this forces them to move more slowly than their natural speed, that of light, by making them heavy.
The Standard Model of particle physics is extremely successful in describing nature. It is, however, incomplete in one major way: the masses of gauge bosons and fermions enter the Standard Model through the Higgs mechanism. That is completely satisfactory technically, but it is not understood physically. We do not yet know what nature really does to give mass to particles. Understanding Higgs physics is necessary in order to complete the Standard Model, and to learn how to extend it and improve its foundations.This book is a collection of current work and thinking about these questions by active workers. It speculates about what form the answers will take, as well as updates and extends previous books and reviews. Some chapters emphasize theoretical questions, some focus on connections with other areas of physics, and some discuss how we can get data to uncover nature's solution. This second edition adds information and insights from the last five years, including the recent indirect but statistically significant evidence for the existence of a Higgs boson from precision measurements. It contains contributions from Blondel, Quiros, Haber, Pokorski, Dawson, Janot, Mrenna, Gunion, Ibanez, Ross, Bigi, Carena, Wagner, Georgi, Chanowitz, Yuan, Hill, and others.
Higgs Force tells the dramatic story of how physicists produced their modern understanding of the Cosmos by unlocking the secrets of matter. Physicists believe that the universe began in a state of perfect symmetry. As the universe expanded and the temperature fell, much of this symmetry was lost in an all-encompassing transformation. We see the results all around us - the evolution of a complex and dynamic universe supporting the existence of sentient life. Deep beneath the Franco-Swiss border, CERN, with the mighty Large Hadron Collider, is seeking the ultimate confirmation of these ideas - the elusive Higgs particle, known to some as the God Particle.
On July 4th, 2012, one of physics' most exhilarating results was announced: a new particle – and very likely a new kind of particle – had been discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, the huge particle accelerator designed to reproduce energies present in the universe a fraction of a second after the Big Bang. The particle's existence had been speculated on for nearly fifty years: here, finally, was proof. Professor Lisa Randall of Harvard University is one of the world's most influential theoretical physicists, and author of the bestselling Knocking on Heaven's Door and Warped Passages. In Higgs Discovery she deftly explains both this epochal discovery and it's startlingly beautiful implications.
Despite the great success of the standard model of electroweak and strong interactions to describe the phenomena observed in high energy physics experiments, the mechanism by which the elementary particles are endowed with their masses is yet to be unraveled. Does nature choose the Higgs mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking as predicted by the standard model, or do we need some alternative explanation? The purpose of the workshop is to capture new trends and ideas in this exciting area of fundamental physics, and to explore the potential of recent (LEPI), present (HERA, LEPII, SLC, Tevatron), and future (FMC, LHC, NLC) colliding-beam experiments to shed light on the Higgs puzzle. Contents:Analysis of the Z0 Resonant Amplitude in General Rξ Gauges and Related Problems (A Sirlin)Searches for Higgs Bosons at LEP2 and Status of ALEPH Four-Jet Events (P Janot)Aspects of Higgs Physics at the ILC (R Settles)Higgs Physics at a Muon Collider (J F Gunion)Radiative Corrections in the MSSM Higgs Sector (W Hollik)Unification or Compositeness? (P Langacker & J Erler)The Higgs Puzzle — What Can We Learn from Electroweak Phase Transition? (M E Shaposhnikov)Future Directions in Higgs Phenomenology (H E Haber)and other papers Readership: Physicists and postgraduate students in high energy physics. keywords:Higgs;Higgs Bosons;Muon Collider;Electroweak;Phenomenology
The Higgs Hunter's Guide is a definitive and comprehensive guide to the physics of Higgs bosons. In particular, it discusses the extended Higgs sectors required by those recent theoretical approaches that go beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry and superstring-inspired models.
The masses of fermions and gauge bosons enter the Standard Model through the Higgs mechanism, which is satisfactory technically but is not understood physically. We do not know what nature really does to give mass to particles, nor what experimental clues will lead us to nature's solution. Understanding Higgs physics is necessary in order to complete the Standard Model, and to learn how to extend it and improve its foundations. This book is a collection of current work and thinking about these questions by active workers. It speculates about what form the answers will take, as well as updates and extends previous books and reviews. Some chapters emphasize theoretical questions, some focus on connections with other areas of physics, and some discuss how we can get the data to uncover nature's solution. Contents:The Higgs System (M Veltman)Constraints on Higgs Boson Properties from the Higgs Potential (M Sher)Higgs Bosons in the Minimal Supersymmetric Model: The Influence of Radiative Corrections (H E Haber)Producing the Intermediate Mass Higgs Boson (S Dawson)Search for Higgs Bosons with Isolated Photons at Large Hadron Colliders (Z Kunszt)Detecting the Supersymmetric Higgs Bosons (J F Gunion)What Kind of Higgs Boson Is It? (G L Kane)Electroweak Breaking in Supersymmetric Models (L E Ibáñez and G G Ross)Addressing the Mysterious with the Obscure — CP Violation via Higgs Dynamics (I I Bigi et al.)Electroweak Baryogenesis (N Turok)Why I Would Be Very Sad If a Higgs Boson Were Discovered (H Georgi)Strong W W Scattering at the SSC and LHC (M S Chanowitz)Equivalence Theorem and Scattering of Longitudinal Vector Bosons (H Veltman)Proposals for Studying TeV WLWL → WLWL Interactions Experimentally (C-P Yuan)The Revival of Technicolor Models (M B Einhorn)Top Quark Condensates (C T Hill) Readership: High energy physicists and astrophysicists. keywords:Higgs;Higgs Boson;Supersymmetry;Electroweak Symmetry Breaking;Tevatron;Baryogenesis;WW Scattering “… this is an excellent book. It should be in the collection of every particle physicist, as well as in every major research library.” Science (USA)
The recent observation of the Higgs boson has been hailed as the scientific discovery of the century and led to the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics. This book describes the detailed science behind the decades-long search for this elusive particle at the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN and at the Tevatron at Fermilab and its subsequent discovery and characterization at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Written by physicists who played leading roles in this epic search and discovery, this book is an authoritative and pedagogical exposition of the portrait of the Higgs boson that has emerged from a large number of experimental measurements. As the first of its kind, this book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in particle physics.
This Thesis describes the first measurement of, and constraints on, Higgs boson production in the vector boson fusion mode, where the Higgs decays to b quarks (the most common decay channel), at the LHC. The vector boson fusion mode, in which the Higgs is produced simultaneously with a pair of quark jets, provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the detailed properties of the Higgs, including the possibility of parity and CP violation, as well as its couplings and mass. It thus opens up this new field of study for precision investigation as the LHC increases in energy and intensity, leading the way to this new and exciting arena of precision Higgs research.
We show that the mathematical proof of the four color theorem yields a perfect interpretation of the Standard Model of particle physics. The steps of the proof enable us to construct the t-Riemann surface and particle frame which forms the gauge. We specify well-defined rules to match the Standard Model in a one-to-one correspondence with the topological and algebraic structure of the particle frame. This correspondence is exact - it only allows the particles and force fields to have the observable properties of the Standard Model, giving us a Grand Unified Theory. In this paper, we concentrate on explicitly specifying the quarks, gauge vector bosons, the Standard Model scalar Higgs boson and the weak force field. Using all the specifications of our mathematical model, we show how to calculate the values of the Weinberg and Cabibbo angles on the particle frame. Finally, we present our prediction of the Higgs boson mass M = 126 GeV, as a direct consequence of the proof of the four color theorem.