Updated and expanded edition of this well-known Physics textbook provides an excellent Undergraduate introduction to the field This new edition of Nuclear and Particle Physics continues the standards established by its predecessors, offering a comprehensive and highly readable overview of both the theoretical and experimental areas of these fields. The updated and expanded text covers a very wide range of topics in particle and nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the phenomenological approach to understanding experimental data. It is one of the few publications currently available that gives equal treatment to both fields, while remaining accessible to undergraduates. Early chapters cover basic concepts of nuclear and particle physics, before describing their respective phenomenologies and experimental methods. Later chapters interpret data through models and theories, such as the standard model of particle physics, and the liquid drop and shell models of nuclear physics, and also discuss many applications of both fields. The concluding two chapters deal with practical applications and outstanding issues, including extensions to the standard model, implications for particle astrophysics, improvements in medical imaging, and prospects for power production. There are a number of useful appendices. Other notable features include: New or expanded coverage of developments in relevant fields, such as the discovery of the Higgs boson, recent results in neutrino physics, research to test theories beyond the standard model (such as supersymmetry), and important technical advances, such as Penning traps used for high-precision measurements of nuclear masses. Practice problems at the end of chapters (excluding the last chapter) with solutions to selected problems provided in an appendix, as well as an extensive list of references for further reading. Companion website with solutions (odd-numbered problems for students, all problems for instructors), PowerPoint lecture slides, and other resources. As with previous editions, the balanced coverage and additional resources provided, makes Nuclear and Particle Physics an excellent foundation for advanced undergraduate courses, or a valuable general reference text for early graduate studies.
Applied mathematics connects the mathematical theory to the reality by solving real world problems and shows the power of the science of mathematics, greatly improving our lives. Therefore it plays a very active and central role in the scientific world.This volume contains 14 high quality survey articles — incorporating original results and describing the main research activities of contemporary applied mathematics — written by top people in the field. The articles have been written in review style, so that the researcher can have a quick and thorough view of what is happening in the main subfields of applied mathematics.
The most non-trivial of the established microscopic theories of physics is QCD: the theory of the strong interaction. A critical link between theory and experiment is provided by the methods of perturbative QCD, notably the well-known factorization theorems. Giving an accurate account of the concepts, theorems and their justification, this book is a systematic treatment of perturbative QCD. As well as giving a mathematical treatment, the book relates the concepts to experimental data, giving strong motivations for the methods. It also examines in detail transverse-momentum-dependent parton densities, an increasingly important subject not normally treated in other books. Ideal for graduate students starting their work in high-energy physics, it will also interest experienced researchers wanting a clear account of the subject.
An accessible introduction to nuclear and particle physics with equal coverage of both topics, this text covers all the standard topics in particle and nuclear physics thoroughly and provides a few extras, including chapters on experimental methods; applications of nuclear physics including fission, fusion and biomedical applications; and unsolved problems for the future. It includes basic concepts and theory combined with current and future applications. An excellent resource for physics and astronomy undergraduates in higher-level courses, this text also serves well as a general reference for graduate studies.
This book reviews the basic models and theories of nuclear structure and gives an in-depth analysis of their experimental and mathematical foundations. It shows the relationships between the models and exhibits the value of following the strategy of: looking for patterns in all the data available, developing phenomenological models to explain them, and finally giving the models a foundation in a fundamental microscopic theory of interacting neutrons and protons. This unique book takes a newcomer from an introduction to nuclear structure physics to the frontiers of the subject along a painless path. It provides both the experimental and mathematical foundations of the essential models in a way that is accessible to a broad range of experimental and theoretical physicists. Thus, the book provides a unique resource and an exposition of the essential principles, mathematical structures, assumptions, and observational data on which the models and theories are based. It avoids discussion of many non-essential variations and technical details of the models.
Countries across the globe invest tens of billions in particle physics, which relies on the Standard Model. This model is styled by its proponents as "the most accurate theory in history, in any field." This book presents a long series of failures found with the theory: its inability to explain basic phenomena known since the 1930s; its prediction of particles and materials that have refused to be uncovered even in lunar rocks; the growing recognition that basic assumptions underlying the model are incorrect; and more. This is the first time these well-documented data have been compiled in a simple and coherent fashion, allowing science enthusiasts to understand the scientific failures and the sociological reasons for scientists' inability to openly discuss these flaws. Only a few dare to express their doubts: "Ironically, from the perspective of QCD, the foundations of nuclear physics appear distinctly unsound." - Frank Wilczek, Nobel laureate, 2004 (QCD is a central part of the Standard Model.)
For scientific, technological and organizational reasons, the end of World War II (in 1945) saw a rapid acceleration in the tempo of discovery and understanding in nuclear physics, cosmic rays and quantum field theory, which together triggered the birth of modern particle physics. The first fifteen years (1945-60) following the war's end ? the ?Startup Period? in modern particle physics -witnessed a series of major experimental and theoretical developments that began to define the conceptual contours (non-Abelian internal symmetries, Yang-Mills fields, renormalization group, chirality invariance, baryon-lepton symmetry in weak interactions, spontaneous symmetry breaking) of the quantum field theory of three of the basic interactions in nature (electromagnetic, strong and weak). But it took another fifteen years (1960-75) ? the ?Heroic Period? in modern particle physics ? to unravel the physical content and complete the mathematical formulation of the standard gauge theory of the strong and electroweak interactions among the three generations of quarks and leptons. The impressive accomplishments during the ?Heroic Period? were followed by what is called the ?period of consolidation and speculation (1975-1990)?, which includes the experimental consolidation of the standard model (SM) through precision tests, theoretical consolidation of SM through the search for more rigorous mathematical solutions to the Yang-Mills-Higgs equations, and speculative theoretical excursions ?beyond SM?.Within this historical-conceptual framework, the author ? himself a practicing particle theorist for the past fifty years ? attempts to trace the highlights in the conceptual evolution of modern particle physics from its early beginnings until the present time. Apart from the first chapter ? which sketches a broad overview of the entire field ? the remaining nine chapters of the book offer detailed discussions of the major concepts and principles that prevailed and were given wide currency during each of the fifteen-year periods that comprise the history of modern particle physics. Those concepts and principles that contributed only peripherally to the standard model are given less coverage but an attempt is made to inform the reader about such contributions (which may turn out to be significant at a future time) and to suggest references that supply more information. Chapters 2 and 3 of the book cover a range of topics that received dedicated attention during the ?Startup Period? although some of the results were not incorporated into the structure of the standard model. Chapters 4-6 constitute the core of the book and try to recapture much of the conceptual excitement of the ?Heroic Period?, when quantum flavordynamics (QFD) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) received their definitive formulation. [It should be emphasized that, throughout the book, logical coherence takes precedence over historical chronology (e.g. some of the precision tests of QFD are discussed in Chapter 6)]. Chapter 7 provides a fairly complete discussion of the chiral gauge anomalies in four dimensions with special application to the standard model (although the larger unification models are also considered). The remaining three chapters of the book (Chapters 7-10) cover concepts and principles that originated primarily during the ?Period of Consolidation and Speculation? but, again, this is not a literal statement. Chapters 8 and 9 report on two of the main directions that were pursued to overcome acknowledged deficiencies of the standard model: unification models in Chapter 8 and attempts to account for the existence of precisely three generations of quarks and leptons, primarily by means of preon models, in Chapter 9. The most innovative of the final three chapters of the book is Chapter 10 on topological conservation laws. This last chapter tries to explain the significance of topologically non-trivial solutions in four-dimensional (space-time) particle physics (e.g. 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, instantons, sphalerons, global SU(2) anomaly, Wess-Zumino term, etc.) and to reflect on some of the problems that have ensued (e.g. the ?strong CP problem? in QCD) from this effort. It turns out that the more felicitous topological applications of field theory are found ? as of now ? in condensed matter physics; these successful physical applications (to polyacetylene, quantized magnetic flux in type-II low temperature superconductivity, etc.) are discussed in Chapter 10, as a good illustration of the conceptual unity of modern physics.