The purpose of this science book is to encourage your child to learn through experiments. The content covers everything from lab safety, designing an experiment, predictions and hypotheses, observations and data collection. You sixth grader will find this book very useful because it has been culled from the curriculum used in school. Grab a copy today.
What is science for a child? How do children learn about science and how to do science? Drawing on a vast array of work from neuroscience to classroom observation, Taking Science to School provides a comprehensive picture of what we know about teaching and learning science from kindergarten through eighth grade. By looking at a broad range of questions, this book provides a basic foundation for guiding science teaching and supporting students in their learning. Taking Science to School answers such questions as: When do children begin to learn about science? Are there critical stages in a child's development of such scientific concepts as mass or animate objects? What role does nonschool learning play in children's knowledge of science? How can science education capitalize on children's natural curiosity? What are the best tasks for books, lectures, and hands-on learning? How can teachers be taught to teach science? The book also provides a detailed examination of how we know what we know about children's learning of science--about the role of research and evidence. This book will be an essential resource for everyone involved in K-8 science education--teachers, principals, boards of education, teacher education providers and accreditors, education researchers, federal education agencies, and state and federal policy makers. It will also be a useful guide for parents and others interested in how children learn.
Rrom the initial investigation of a crime to the sentencing of an offender, a wide range of practices within the criminal justice system drawon psychological knowledge. In this book, prominent cognitive adn social psychology researchers analyze the processes in volved in such tasks as interviewing witnesses, detecting deception, and eliciting eyewitness reports and indentification from adults and children. Also examined are factors that influence decision making by jurors and judges, including the persuasive strategies used by lawyers. Throughout, findings from experimental research are translated into clear rrecommendations fo rimproving the quality of evidence and the fairness of investigative and legal proceedings. The book also addresses salient methodological questions and identifies key directions for future investigation.
Forensic science evidence and expert witness testimony play an increasingly prominent role in modern criminal proceedings. Science produces powerful evidence of criminal offending, but has also courted controversy and sometimes contributed towards miscarriages of justice. The twenty-six articles and essays reproduced in this volume explore the theoretical foundations of modern scientific proof and critically consider the practical issues to which expert evidence gives rise in contemporary criminal trials. The essays are prefaced by a substantial new introduction which provides an overview and incisive commentary contextualising the key debates. The volume begins by placingforensic science in interdisciplinary focus, with contributions from historical, sociological, Science and Technology Studies (STS), philosophical and jurisprudential perspectives. This is followed by closer examination of the role of forensic science and other expert evidence in criminal proceedings, exposing enduring tensions and addressing recent controversies in the relationship between science and criminal law. A third set of contributions considers the practical challenges of interpreting and communicating forensic science evidence. This perennial battle continues to be fought at the intersection between the logic of scientific inference and the psychology of the fact-finder‘scommon sense reasoning. Finally, the volume‘s fourth group of essays evaluates the (limited) success of existing procedural reforms aimed at improving the reception of expert testimony in criminal adjudication, and considers future prospects for institutional renewal - with a keen eye to comparative law models and experiences, success stories and cautionary tales.
Many people naturally assume that the claims made for foods and nutritional supplements have the same degree of scientific grounding as those for medication, but that is not always the case. The IOM recommends that the FDA adopt a consistent scientific framework for biomarker evaluation in order to achieve a rigorous and transparent process.
The basic understanding which underlies scientific evidence - ideas such as the structure of experiments, causality, repeatability, validity and reliability- is not straightforward. But these ideas are needed to judge evidence in school science, in physics or chemistry or biology or psychology, in undergraduate science, and in understanding everyday issues to do with science. It is essential to be able to be critical of scientific evidence. The authors clearly set out the principles of investigation so that the reader will be confident in questioning the experts, making an informed choice or arriving at in informed opinion. The book is intended for a wide range of readers including those who want to: } collect their own evidence } be able to question and judge a wide range of science-based issues that we come across in the press or other media in everyday life } teach others how to understand evidence. This book has been developed from the authors' work with first year undergraduates in a combined science course and in primary teacher training for science specialists. It is suitable for students training as primary science specialists, and also for 'A' level and first-year undergraduates in science and science-related subjects.
Recent years have witnessed a marked increase both in the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and those placed alongside their typically developing peers in general education classrooms. These events bring with them a plethora of challenges, particularly in the areas of program design and educational practices. Developing and Evaluating Educational Programs for Students with Autism offers systematic, evidence-based guidelines—as well as tools, checklists, and other resources—for creating effective learning environments for students across the autism spectrum and the grade span. Planning, development, implementation, and continuous evaluation are examined in detail in this practical volume, which features: An overview of the ASDs, with an emphasis on effective educational practice. In-depth discussion of the ASD Program Development and Evaluation Protocol. A staff training model for personnel working with students with ASD. A detailed framework for student support teams and family-school collaboration. Specific guidelines for conducting needs assessments and student evaluations. • Case examples of applications of the protocol on the program, school, and regional levels. Developing and Evaluating Educational Programs for Students with Autism is a uniquely rigorous and thorough reference benefiting school psychologists and special education professionals as well as those in allied educational and mental health fields, including clinical child, school, and developmental psychologists, psychiatrists, and other professionals working with children with autism.
This book explores challenges posed by the use of DNA evidence to the traditional features, procedures and principles of the criminal trial. It examines the limitations of existing theories of criminal trial processes in the face of increasing use of scientific evidence in the court room. The research elucidates the interconnections at trial of three epistemologies, namely legal reasoning, as represented by counsel and trial judge, common sense manifested by the jury and scientific reasoning expounded by the expert witness. Sallavaci argues that while scientific reasoning is part of this hybrid of trial languages and practices, its extended use is producing specifically novel tensions which impact on the traditional criminal trial landscape. Through the lens of DNA evidence, the book investigates how far the use of scientific evidence in the fact finding process poses challenges for the adversarial character of the proceedings and rules of evidence; how it affects the role of the judge, jury and expert witness, as well as the principle of orality and continuity of the trial. In comparing the challenges faced in English common law trials to those of the USA, this book has international scope, and will be of great use and interest to students and researchers of Criminal Law and Practice, Policing, and the role of Forensics in Law.
Smoking-related diseases kill more Americans than alcohol, illegal drugs, murder and suicide combined. The passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the FDA authority to regulate "modified risk tobacco products" (MRTPs), tobacco products that are either designed or advertised to reduce harm or the risk of tobacco-related disease. MRTPs must submit to the FDA scientific evidence to demonstrate the product has the potential to reduce tobacco related harms as compared to conventional tobacco products. The IOM identifies minimum standards for scientific studies that an applicant would need to complete to obtain an order to market the product from the FDA.
Guest edited by Drs. Marjorie Eskay-Auerbach and Robert Rondinelli, this issue of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics will discuss Medical Impairment and Disability Evaluation and Associated Medicolegal Issues. This issue is one of four selected each year by our series Consulting Editor, Dr. Santos Martinez of the Campbell Clinic. Topics in this issue include, but are not limited to: The Physician’s Approach to Impairment Rating and Disability Benefits Determinations; Claimant-related Issues; Evaluating Return-to-work ability using Functional Capacity Evaluation; Evaluating Human Functioning Using CAT Methodology for Disability Determination within the SSA; Burden of treatment compliance; Measuring Quality of Life Loss in Litigation; Medical-Legal Causation Analysis; Actuarial Analysis and Life Expectancy Determination after Catastrophic Illness or Injury; Validity Assessment in Acquired Brain Injury Disability Evaluation; Medicolegal Expert Core Competencies & Professionalism; The Physician as Expert Witness; Rehabilitating the Injured Worker to Maximum Medical Improvement (MMI); The Independent Medical Examination (IME); and Life Care Planning, among other topics.