As the first comprehensive encyclopedic survey of Western architectural theory from Vitruvius to the present, this book is an essential resource for architects, students, teachers, historians, and theorists. Using only original sources, Kruft has undertaken the monumental task of researching, organizing, and analyzing the significant statements put forth by architectural theorists over the last two thousand years. The result is a text that is authoritative and complete, easy to read without being reductive.
This is a study of a distinctive brand of modernism that first emerged in late nineteenth-century Germany and remained influential throughout the inter-war years and beyond. Its supporters saw themselves as a new elite, ideally placed to tackle the many challenges facing the young and rapidly industrializing German nation-state. They defined themselves as bourgeois, and acted as self-appointed champions of a modern consciousness. Focusing on figures such as Hermann Muthesius, Fritz Schumacher, and Karl-Ernst Osthaus, and the activities of the Deutscher Werkbund and other networks of bourgeois designers, writers, and 'experts', this book shows how bourgeois modernism shaped the infrastructure of social and political life in early twentieth-century Germany. Bourgeois modernism exercised its power not so much in the realm of ideas, but by transforming the physical environment of German cities, from domestic interiors, via consumer objects, to urban and regional planning. Drawing on a detailed analysis of key material sites of bourgeois modernism, and interpreting them in conjunction with written sources, this study offers new insights into the history of the bourgeois mindset and its operations in the private and public realms. Thematic chapters examine leitmotifs such as the sense of locality and place, the sense of history and time, and the sense of nature and culture. Yet for all its self-conscious progressivism, German bourgeois modernism was not an inevitable precursor of neo-liberal global capitalism. It remained a hotly contested historical construct, which was constantly re-defined in different geographical and political settings.
Style-Architecture and Building-Art is Hermann Muthesius’s classic criticism of nineteenth century architecture. Now published for the first time in English, this pivotal text represents the first serious effort by Muthesius to define the elements of early modernist architecture according to notions of realism and simplicity. Although Muthesius is known best in Anglo-American architectural literature for his studies of the English house, his scholarship constituted a wide-ranging modernist polemic emanating from the German realist movement of the late 1890s. Notions that were introduced in Style-Architecture and Building-Art became common in later modernist historiography: disdain for the nineteenth century’s artistic eclecticism and lack of originality; appreciation of the material and industrial aspects of building technology, and, above all, a simpler approach to design. Muthesius' critique of stylistic architecture is not only linked to the development of the Deutsche Werkbund movement, but also can be viewed more broadly as a cornerstone of the modern movement. In his introduction, Standford Anderson situates Muthesius and his work in turn-of-the-century architectural discourse and analyzes his vision of a new form of architecture. Anderson also discusses the rationale underlying the call for cultural renewal, the role of English architectural models in Muthesius’s thought, critical differences between the first and second editions of Style-Architecture and Building-Art, the influence of the Jugendstil and Art Nouveau movements on Muthesius and, in turn, the influence of Muthesius on the Deutsche Werkbund movement.
Building Theories speaks to the value of words in architecture. It addresses the author’s fascination with the voices of architects, engineers, builders, and craftspeople whose ideas about building have been captured in text. It discusses the content of treatises, essays, articles, and letters by those who have been, throughout history, committed to the art of building. In this, Building Theories argues for the return of a practice of architectural theory that is set amongst building, buildings, and builders. This journey of close reading reinterprets the words of Vitruvius, Alberti, de L’Orme, Le Camus de Mézières, Boullée, Laugier, Rondelet, Semper, Viollet-le-Duc, Hübsch, Bötticher, Berlage, Muthesius, Wagner, Behrendt, Gropius, and Arup. With chapters dedicated to texts from antiquity, the Renaissance, and the nineteenth century, and with a critical eye on architectural theory popularized in the Anglo-Saxon world post-1968, readers are introduced to a wider, more inclusive definition of architectural ideas. Building Theories considers how contemporary scholarship has steered away from the topic of building in its reluctance to admit that both design and construction are central to its concerns. In response, it argues for a realignment of architecture with the concept of techné, with a dual commitment to fabrica e ratio, with a productive return to l’art de bien bastir, with the accurate translation of the term Baukunst, and with an appeal to the architect’s ‘composite mind.’ Students, practitioners, and educators will identify in Building Theories ways of thinking that strive for the integration of design with construction; reject the supposed primacy of the former over the latter; recognize how aesthetics are an insufficient scaffold for subtending the subject of architectural ethics; and accept, without reservation, that material transformations have always been at the origins of built form.
Über 11.000 thematisch gruppierte Wörter und Wendungen vermitteln einen praxisnahen Wortschatz, den Englischlernende versiert und idiomatisch anwenden lernen. Die 3., gründlich neu bearbeitete Auflage basiert auf aktuellen Ergebnissen der Wortfrequenzforschung: Damit enthält sie die wichtigsten Wörter und Ausdrücke der Weltsprache Nr. 1: so wie sie heute gesprochen und geschrieben wird. - schnell auffinden durch Gliederung in lebensnahe Themen - erfolgreich lernen durch gedächtnisfreundliche Lernportionen - korrekt anwenden durch Orientierung an Redewendungen, Beispielsätzen und präzisen Übersetzungen - nachhaltig festigen dank vielfältiger Lerntipps und -hilfen - wiederholen und ausbauen durch zwei Lernstufen (Grund- und Aufbauwortschatz) Hundertausendfach bewährt beim Schreiben von Aufsätzen sowie bei der Vorbereitung auf Referate, Klausuren und Prüfungen.