This volume reviews the physics studied at the CERN proton-antiproton collider during its first phase of operation, from the first physics run in 1981 to the last one at the end of 1985.The volume consists of a series of review articles written by physicists who are actively involved with the collider research program. The first article describes the proton-antiproton collider facility itself, including the antiproton source and its principle of operation based on stochastic cooling.The subsequent six articles deal with the various physics subjects studied at the collider. Each article describes in detail the experimental results on a particular subject, and also provides the theoretical framework necessary for their interpretation. Finally the last two articles discuss the physics expectations from the improved collider (the so-called ACOL program, which has just started operation), and also from the next generation of ?supercolliders? which are being considered both in Europe and in the United States America.
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a mega-scale, technically complex project, requiring large financial resources and cooperation of thousands of scientists and engineers from all over the world. Such a big and expensive project has to be discussed publicly, and the planned goals have to be clearly formulated. This book advocates for the demand for the project, motivated by the current situation in particle physics. The natural and most powerful way of obtaining new knowledge in particle physics is to build a new collider with a larger energy. In this approach, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was created and is now operating at the world record center of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Although the design of colliders with a larger energy of 50-100 TeV has been discussed, the practical realization of such a project is not possible for another 20-30 years. Of course, many new results are expected from LHC over the next decade. However, we must also think about other opportunities, and in particular, about the construction of more dedicated experiments. There are many potentially promising projects, however, the most obvious possibility to achieve significant progress in particle physics in the near future is the construction of a linear e+e- collider with energies in the range (250-1000) GeV. Such a project, the ILC, is proposed to be built in Kitakami, Japan. This book will discuss why this project is important and which new discoveries can be expected with this collider.
This updated edition of Collider Physics surveys the major developments in theoretical and experimental particle physics and uses numerous illustrations to show how the Standard Model explains the experimental results. Collider Physics offers an introduction to the fundamental particles and their interactions at the level of a lecture course for graduate students, with emphasis on the aspects most closely related to colliders--past, present, and future. It includes expectations for new physics associated with Higgs bosons and supersymmetry. This resourceful book shows how to make practical calculations and serves a dual purpose as a textbook and a handbook for collider physics phenomenology.
This book presents the developments in accelerator physics and technology implemented at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider, the world’s most powerful accelerator for almost twenty years prior to the completion of the Large Hadron Collider. The book covers the history of collider operation and upgrades, novel arrangements of beam optics and methods of orbit control, antiproton production and cooling, beam instabilities and feedback systems, halo collimation, and advanced beam instrumentation. The topics discussed show the complexity and breadth of the issues associated with modern hadron accelerators, while providing a systematic approach needed in the design and construction of next generation colliders. This book is a valuable resource for researchers in high energy physics and can serve as an introduction for students studying the beam physics of colliders.
The Standard Theory of Particle Physics describes successfully the observed strong and electroweak interactions, but it is not a final theory of physics, since many aspects are not understood: (1) How can gravity be introduced in the Standard Theory? (2) How can we understand the observed masses of the leptons and quarks as well as the flavor mixing angles? (3) Why are the masses of the neutrinos much smaller than the masses of the charged leptons? (4) Is the new boson, discovered at CERN, the Higgs boson of the Standard Theory or an excited weak boson? (5) Are there new symmetries at very high energy, e.g. a broken supersymmetry? (6) Are the leptons and quarks point-like or composite particles? (7) Are the leptons and quarks at very small distances one-dimensional objects, e.g. superstrings? This proceedings volume comprises papers written by the invited speakers discussing the many important issues of the new physics to be discovered at the Large Hadron Collider.
The high energy electronOCopositron linear collider is expected to provide crucial clues to many of the fundamental questions of our time: What is the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking? Does a Standard Model Higgs boson exist, or does nature take the route of supersymmetry, technicolor or extra dimensions, or none of the foregoing? This invaluable book is a collection of articles written by experts on many of the most important topics which the linear collider will focus on. It is aimed primarily at graduate students but will undoubtedly be useful also to any active researcher on the physics of the next generation linear collider."
An introduction to the world of quarks and leptons, and of their interactions governed by fundamental symmetries of nature, as well as an introduction to the connection that exists between worlds of the infinitesimally small and the infinitely large.The book begins with a simple presentation of the theoretical framework, the so-called Standard Model, which evolved gradually since the 1960s. The key experiments establishing it as the theory of elementary particle physics, but also its missing pieces and conceptual weaknesses are introduced. The book proceeds with the extraordinary story of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN — the largest purely scientific project ever realized. Conception, design and construction by worldwide collaborations of the detectors of size and complexity without precedent in scientific history are discussed. The book then offers the reader a state-of-the art (2020) appreciation of the depth and breadth of the physics exploration performed by the LHC experiments: the study of new forms of matter, the understanding of symmetry-breaking phenomena at the fundamental level, the exciting searches for new physics such as dark matter, additional space dimensions, new symmetries, and more. The adventure of the LHC culminated in the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 (Nobel Prize in Physics in 2013). The last chapter of this book describes the plans for the LHC during the next 15 years of exploitation and improvement, and the possible evolution of the field and future collider projects under consideration.The authors are researchers from CERN, CEA and CNRS (France), and deeply engaged in the LHC program: D Denegri in the CMS experiment, C Guyot, A Hoecker and L Roos in the ATLAS experiment. Some of them are involved since the inception of the project. They give a lively and accessible inside view of this amazing scientific and human adventure.
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Understanding of protons and neutrons, or "nucleons"â€"the building blocks of atomic nucleiâ€"has advanced dramatically, both theoretically and experimentally, in the past half century. A central goal of modern nuclear physics is to understand the structure of the proton and neutron directly from the dynamics of their quarks and gluons governed by the theory of their interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and how nuclear interactions between protons and neutrons emerge from these dynamics. With deeper understanding of the quark-gluon structure of matter, scientists are poised to reach a deeper picture of these building blocks, and atomic nuclei themselves, as collective many-body systems with new emergent behavior. The development of a U.S. domestic electron-ion collider (EIC) facility has the potential to answer questions that are central to completing an understanding of atoms and integral to the agenda of nuclear physics today. This study assesses the merits and significance of the science that could be addressed by an EIC, and its importance to nuclear physics in particular and to the physical sciences in general. It evaluates the significance of the science that would be enabled by the construction of an EIC, its benefits to U.S. leadership in nuclear physics, and the benefits to other fields of science of a U.S.-based EIC.