This book offers a short and concise introduction to the many facets of chaos theory. While the study of chaotic behavior in nonlinear, dynamical systems is a well-established research field with ramifications in all areas of science, there is a lot to be learnt about how chaos can be controlled and, under appropriate conditions, can actually be constructive in the sense of becoming a control parameter for the system under investigation, stochastic resonance being a prime example. The present work stresses the latter aspects and, after recalling the paradigm changes introduced by the concept of chaos, leads the reader skillfully through the basics of chaos control by detailing the relevant algorithms for both Hamiltonian and dissipative systems, among others. The main part of the book is then devoted to the issue of synchronization in chaotic systems, an introduction to stochastic resonance, and a survey of ratchet models. In this second, revised and enlarged edition, two more chapters explore the many interfaces of quantum physics and dynamical systems, examining in turn statistical properties of energy spectra, quantum ratchets, and dynamical tunneling, among others. This text is particularly suitable for non-specialist scientists, engineers, and applied mathematical scientists from related areas, wishing to enter the field quickly and efficiently. From the reviews of the first edition: This book is an excellent introduction to the key concepts and control of chaos in (random) dynamical systems [...] The authors find an outstanding balance between main physical ideas and mathematical terminology to reach their audience in an impressive and lucid manner. This book is ideal for anybody who would like to grasp quickly the main issues related to chaos in discrete and continuous time. Henri Schurz, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1178, 2010.
The study of physics has changed in character, mainly due to the passage from the analyses of linear systems to the analyses of nonlinear systems. Such a change began, it goes without saying, a long time ago but the qualitative change took place and boldly evolved after the understanding of the nature of chaos in nonlinear s- tems. The importance of these systems is due to the fact that the major part of physical reality is nonlinear. Linearity appears as a result of the simpli?cation of real systems, and often, is hardly achievable during the experimental studies. In this book, we focus our attention on some general phenomena, naturally linked with nonlinearity where chaos plays a constructive part. The ?rst chapter discusses the concept of chaos. It attempts to describe the me- ing of chaos according to the current understanding of it in physics and mat- matics. The content of this chapter is essential to understand the nature of chaos and its appearance in deterministic physical systems. Using the Turing machine, we formulate the concept of complexity according to Kolmogorov. Further, we state the algorithmic theory of Kolmogorov–Martin-Lof ̈ randomness, which gives a deep understanding of the nature of deterministic chaos. Readers will not need any advanced knowledge to understand it and all the necessary facts and de?nitions will be explained.
This book systematically presents the consolidated findings of the phenomenon of self-organization observed during the onset of thermoacoustic instability using approaches from dynamical systems and complex systems theory. Over the last decade, several complex dynamical states beyond limit cycle oscillations such as quasiperiodicity, frequency-locking, period-n, chaos, strange non-chaos, and intermittency have been discovered in thermoacoustic systems operated in laminar and turbulent flow regimes. During the onset of thermoacoustic instability in turbulent systems, an ordered acoustic field and large coherent vortices emerge from the background of turbulent combustion. This emergence of order from disorder in both temporal and spatiotemporal dynamics is explored in the contexts of synchronization, pattern formation, collective interaction, multifractality, and complex networks. For the past six decades, the spontaneous emergence of large amplitude, self-sustained, tonal oscillations in confined combustion systems, characterized as thermoacoustic instability, has remained one of the most challenging areas of research. The presence of such instabilities continues to hinder the development and deployment of high-performance combustion systems used in power generation and propulsion applications. Even with the advent of sophisticated measurement techniques to aid experimental investigations and vast improvements in computational power necessary to capture flow physics in high fidelity simulations, conventional reductionist approaches have not succeeded in explaining the plethora of dynamical behaviors and the associated complexities that arise in practical combustion systems. As a result, models and theories based on such approaches are limited in their application to mitigate or evade thermoacoustic instabilities, which continue to be among the biggest concerns for engine manufacturers today. This book helps to overcome these limitations by providing appropriate methodologies to deal with nonlinear thermoacoustic oscillations, and by developing control strategies that can mitigate and forewarn thermoacoustic instabilities. The book is also beneficial to scientists and engineers studying the occurrence of several other instabilities, such as flow-induced vibrations, compressor surge, aeroacoustics and aeroelastic instabilities in diverse fluid-mechanical environments, to graduate students who intend to apply dynamical systems and complex systems approach to their areas of research, and to physicists who look for experimental applications of their theoretical findings on nonlinear and complex systems.
This book offers a novel approach to understanding violence and violent conflict using complexity and network theories, borrowed from the natural sciences, together with social network analysis. Because violence is both a universal and central component of human communication and identity formation, it has a fundamental function in shaping social behavior. Using Manuel Castells’ work on the programming of social networks, this book explores the Lebanese Civil War and the ongoing war in Afghanistan under the perspective of violence within networks. The approach presents a unique and compelling argument that counters the long-held assumption that war is caused by specific events, or is the unavoidable culmination of existing conditions or grievances. Rather, this book argues that violence emerges when the structure of social networks becomes too rigid and hierarchic to adapt to stresses and challenges that materialize on a constant basis from both within and without the network. This is important not only for the study of war, but as a method of improving the success of contemporary peace building efforts.
In the recent years, fractional-order systems have been studied by many researchers in the engineering field. It was found that many systems can be described more accurately by fractional differential equations than by integer-order models. Advanced Synchronization Control and Bifurcation of Chaotic Fractional-Order Systems is a scholarly publication that explores new developments related to novel chaotic fractional-order systems, control schemes, and their applications. Featuring coverage on a wide range of topics including chaos synchronization, nonlinear control, and cryptography, this publication is geared toward engineers, IT professionals, researchers, and upper-level graduate students seeking current research on chaotic fractional-order systems and their applications in engineering and computer science.
The Chaos Theory of Careers outlines the application of chaos theory to the field of career development. It draws together and extends the work that the authors have been doing over the last 8 to 10 years. This text represents a new perspective on the nature of career development. It emphasizes the dimensions of careers frequently neglected by contemporary accounts of careers such as the challenges and opportunities of uncertainty, the interconnectedness of current life and the potential for information overload, career wisdom as a response to unplanned change, new approaches to vocational assessment based on emergent thinking, the place of spirituality and the search for meaning and purpose in, with and through work, the integration of being and becoming as dimensions of career development. It will be vital reading for all those working in and studying career development, either at advanced undergraduate or postgraduate level and provides a new and refreshing approach to this fast changing subject. Key themes include: Factors such as complexity, change, and contribution People's aspirations in relation to work and personal fulfilment Contemporary realities of career choice, career development and the working world
That which does not kill us makes us stronger. (Nietzsche) The phenomenon of positive personal change following devastating events has been recognized since ancient times, but given little attention by contemporary psychologists and psychiatrists, who have tended to focus on the negative consequences of stress. In recent years, evidence from diverse fields has converged to suggest the reality and pervasive importance of the processes the editors sum up as posttraumatic growth. This volume offers the first comprehensive overview of these processes. The authors address a variety of traumas--among them bereavement, physical disability, terminal illness, combat, rape, and natural disasters--following which experiences of growth have been reported. How can sufferers from posttraumatic stress disorder best be helped? What does "resilience" in the face of high risk mean? Which personality characteristics facilitate growth? To what extent is personality change possible in adulthood? How can concepts like happiness and self-actualization be operationalized? What role do changing belief systems, schemas, or "assumptive worlds" play in positive adaptation? Is "stress innoculation" possible? How do spiritual beliefs become central for many people struck by trauma, and how are posttraumatic growth and recovery from substance abuse or the crises of serious physical illnesses linked? Such questions have concerned not only the recently defined and expanding group of "traumatologists," but also therapists of all sorts, personality and social psychologists, developmental and cognitive researchers, specialists in health psychology and behavioral medicine, and those who study religion and mental health. Overcoming the challenges of life's worst experiences can catalyze new opportunities for individual and social development. Learning about persons who discover or create the perception of positive change in their lives may shed light on the problems of those who continue to suffer. Posttraumatic Growth will stimulate dialogue among personality and social psychologists and clinicians, and influence the theoretical foundations and clinical agendas of investigators and practitioners alike.