The present volume covers the story of the history of CERN from the mid 1960s to the late 1970s. The book is organized in three main parts. The first, containing contributions by historians of science, perceives the laboratory as being at the node of a complex of interconnected relationships between scientists and science managers on the staff, the users in the member states, and the governments which were called upon to finance the organization. Parts II and III include chapters by practising scientists. The former surveys the theoretical and experimental physics results obtained at CERN in this period, while the latter describes the development of the laboratory's accelerator complex and Charpak detection techniques.
The discoveries of neutral currents and of the W and Z bosons marked a watershed in the history of CERN. They established the validity of the electroweak theory and convinced the physicists of the importance of renormalizable non-Abelian gauge theories of the fundamental interactions. The articles collected in this book have been written by distinguished physicists who contributed in a crucial way to these developments. The book is a historical account of those discoveries and of the construction and the testing of the standard model. It also reports on the future of particle physics and provides an updated status report on the LHC and its detectors being currently built at CERN. The book addresses readers interested in particle physics including the educated public.
Could CERN, the creator and birthplace of the World Wide Web, be involved and even be behind the most ultimate conspiracy in all of history with their science, symmetry, Satanism, paganism, and rituals? This book is designed as a brief introduction into how CERN is deeply and darkly connected to many world leaders, the Vatican, the Hollywood elites, the deep state, the Illuminati, and the New World Order. My book takes the reader on a journey through what is easily one of the most secretive organizations in all of times and is an accessible and very carefully structured introduction into how it all started, how everything was created with the big bang, almost fourteen billion years ago, and CERN’s burning desire to recreate those conditions through physics and by colliding particles together at almost the speed of light and attempting to be like God almighty. They have created the largest machine in the world and even discovered the god particle, the glue that holds the entire universe together. Why would they build their nuclear research facility upon the burial grounds of Apollyon the Destroyer? Could CERN be responsible for releasing the devil from the bottomless pit, from his prison, hell, as written in the Bible in Revelation 9? CERN has long been accused of opening up black holes that could very well swallow the entire universe, and they even admitted to this Armageddon-like possibility on several occasions. Behind the scenes, CERN’s insidious plans are to open up wormholes, Stargates, and portals to other dimensions, not to enter through, but more so to let something evil into our world. What or who they intend to welcome is known to have many names, such as the horned god, Abaddon, Apollyon, the Beast, Lucifer, Satan, or as many of us would know to be, the devil. Will CERN share its dangerous dark matter with a government or military that is dead set on war, world domination, and destruction? Will CERN create a black hole that swallows the world, or will they release Satan and his legion of demons, locusts, and armies upon the world as the last days predict and approach?
'The contributions from leading scientists of the day collected in this relatively slim book document CERN's 60-year voyage of innovation and discovery, the repercussions of which vindicate the vision of those who drove the foundation of the laboratory — European in constitution, but global in impact. The spirit of inclusive collaboration, which was a key element of the original vision for the laboratory, together with the aim of technical innovation and scientific excellence, are reflected in each of the articles in this unique volume.'CERN Courier'Big' science and advanced technology are known to cross-fertilize. This book emphasizes the interplay between particle physics and technology at CERN that has led to breakthroughs in both research and technology over the laboratory's first 60 years. The innovations, often the work of individuals or by small teams, are illustrated with highlights describing selected technologies from the domains of accelerators and detectors. The book also presents the framework and conditions prevailing at CERN that enabled spectacular advances in technology and contributed to propel the European organization into the league of leading research laboratories in the world.While the book is specifically aimed at providing information for the technically interested general public, more expert readers may also appreciate the broad variety of subjects presented. Ample references are given for those who wish to further explore a given topic.
Housed by a 4 m diameter tunnel of 27 km circumference, with huge underground labs and numerous surface facilities, and set up with a precision of 0.1 mm per kilometer, the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) was not only the largest but also one of the most sophisticated scientific research instruments ever created by Man. Located at CERN, near Geneva, LEP was built during the years 1983 - 1989, was operational until 2000, and corroborated the standard model of particle physics through continuous high precision measurements. The Author, director-general of CERN during the crucial period of the construction of LEP, recounts vividly the convoluted decision-making and technical implementation processes - the tunnel alone being a highly challenging geo- and civil engineering project - and the subsequent extremely fruitful period of scientific research. Finally he describes the difficult decision to close down LEP, at a time when the discovery of the Higgs boson seemed within reach. LEP was eventually dismantled in 2000, enabling the tunnel to be reused for building the next generation machine, the much more powerful Large Hadron Collider (LHC), an upgrade then called LEP3 and foreseen from the beginning. It became operational just as this account was being completed. Written by the main protagonist responsible for making LEP a reality, this is the definitive inside story of a remarkable machine and the many thousands of scientists and engineers from around the world, whose efforts contributed to the new knowledge it produced.
This book discusses the study of double charm B decays and the first observation of B0->D0D0Kst0 decay using Run I data from the LHCb experiment. It also describes in detail the upgrade for the Run III of the LHCb tracking system and the trigger and tracking strategy for the LHCb upgrade, as well as the development and performance studies of a novel standalone tracking algorithm for the scintillating fibre tracker that will be used for the LHCb upgrade. This algorithm alone allows the LHCb upgrade physics program to achieve incredibly high sensitivity to decays containing long-lived particles as final states as well as to boost the physics capabilities for the reconstruction of low momentum particles.
This informative and entertaining book provides a broad look at the fascinating history of CERN, and the physicists working in different areas at CERN who were active in the discovery of the Higgs Boson. Profound and well-structured, the contents combine present day interviews with the scientists of CERN, the world's largest laboratory dedicated to the pursuit of fundamental science, with important figures in the history of science (e.g., Maxwell, Faraday, Einstein), and also gives a lot of information on the history of quantum mechanics and the history of physics from its beginnings. It is an easy-to-read book on a complex topic, providing a very personal insight into the personalities of top scientists and the history of science as well. This invaluable book will capture the interest of the curious reader, telling the story of one of the greatest scientific endeavors ever. Contents:The History of CERNThe Practitioner: Rolf-Dieter HeuerThe Beginning of Modern Physics: Galileo, Copernicus, and KeplerThe Experimentalist: Tejinder S VirdeeDalton — Thomson — Rutherford — BohrThe Man Who Built The LHC: Lyn EvansPhysics, Music, and Art: Tara ShearsThe Theorist: John EllisOersted — Ampère — Faraday — MaxwellThe Communicator: Rolf LanduaAlbert Einstein (1879–1955)The Japanese Way: Masaki HoriThe Nobel Prize Laureate: Carlo RubbiaThe American Friend: Sebastian WhiteFriendly Competitors: Sebastian White and Albert De RoeckRock 'n' Roll, Beer, Billiards, and Music: Jonathan ButterworthThe Higgs Boson — and Then? Readership: General. Key Features:Non-technical, full-bodied book jam-packed with information on the history of science and CERN which is celebrating its 60th anniversary in 2014Personal interviews with the scientists of CERN, who made the practical discovery of the Higgs Boson possible, which was predicted by Peter Higgs et al., 40 years agoThe book paints the complete picture of the necessary means, the technology and the people to make these discoveries possibleIt looks at CERN and the search for the Higgs boson from a very personal angle. Going beyond science and technology, it provides a profound picture of science and its impact on society at the beginning of the 21st century and beyond. CERN and the LHC are entering into everyday culture, and this non-technical book shows important aspects of the impact of scientific research on our view of the worldKeywords:CERN;Higgs Boson;Particle Physics;Nobel Prize;Peter Higgs;PhysicsReviews: “Michael Krause has created a full-bodied work that should be on the shelf of every library and individual interested in the history of science. This is a compelling text that combines interesting and key facts about the creation of CERN and the fundamental structure of matter with the human quest of the search for knowledge and the seeking of answers as to how the universe was created and even why we are here. I highly recommend this delightful and very informative text.” Marc J Seifer Author of “Wizard: The Life & Times of Nikola Tesla” “In this exciting and informative book, the historian Michael Krause looks behind the scenes of the largest scientific institution in the world, CERN. The author draws an exciting picture of the people who work at CERN, and also of the ideas and visions that these top scientists really have. This inspiring book is full of stories from the scientific Mecca in Geneva, and it paints a portrait of life on the CERN campus that is highly recommended reading for both beginners and experts.” Ralf Krauter Deutschlandfunk, Germany “Over several years, the author interviewed CERN scientists about how they have come to particle physics, and what drives them in their research: the human factor plays the key part in this rich and inspiring book. Amidst the very personal and exciting interviews we can find highly interesting excursus into the history of science and its most famous minds. This mix of interviews and technical information is very well done and makes this book a highly enlightening read.” Richard Kirstein Elementary Reading “This is an informative and entertaining celebration of the most remarkable thing about CERN — that such a place ever came to be in the first place. The interesting story of CERN, told in the first part of the book recounts a remarkable political success, largely the brainchild of physicists. The major part of the book consists of interviews with physicists active in different areas at CERN. The author also adds material supporting the topics under discussion, i.e. the Standard Model, or antimatter; and technologies developed at CERN. I commend Michael Krause on this novel approach to discussions about CERN.” Sebastian White ATLAS ZDC experiment “You do get to know some hardcore scientists at a personal level. Their answers give the reader a glimpse of the great endeavour that is CERN, and they also hint that the adventure is far from over — even after the Higgs discovery. With all the background information, you do not have to have a physics degree to gain a basic understanding of the science.” CERN Courier
'The editors make a good point in claiming the time has come to upgrade the Standard Model into the ‘Standard Theory’ of particle physics, and I think this book deserves a place in the bookshelves of a broad community, from the scientists and engineers who contributed to the progress of high-energy physics to younger physicists, eager to learn and enjoy the corresponding inside stories.'Carlos LourençoCERN CourierThe book gives a quite complete and up-to-date picture of the Standard Theory with an historical perspective, with a collection of articles written by some of the protagonists of present particle physics. The theoretical developments are described together with the most up-to-date experimental tests, including the discovery of the Higgs Boson and the measurement of its mass as well as the most precise measurements of the top mass, giving the reader a complete description of our present understanding of particle physics.
Michael Hauschild takes the reader of this essential back to the beginnings of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research near Geneva, Switzerland; one of the most fascinating research centres of all, its history, its people and its accelerators. The author explains how particle accelerators work and, starting from the first ideas, how the world's largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was built. After a two year update, the LHC was put back into operation in spring 2015 to discover the secrets of nature with higher energy than ever before. This Springer essential is a translation of the original German 1st edition essentials, Neustart des LHC: CERN und die Beschleuniger by Michael Hauschild, published by Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature in 2016. The translation was done with the help of artificial intelligence (machine translation by the service DeepL.com). A subsequent human revision was done primarily in terms of content, so that the book will read stylistically differently from a conventional translation. Springer Nature works continuously to further the development of tools for the production of books and on the related technologies to support the authors.
The Higgs boson is the rock star of fundamental particles, catapulting CERN, the laboratory where it was found, into the global spotlight. But what is it, why does it matter, and what exactly is CERN? In the late 1940s, a handful of visionaries were working to steer Europe towards a more peaceful future through science, and CERN, the European particle physics laboratory, was duly born. James Gillies tells the gripping story of particle physics, from the original atomists of ancient Greece, through the people who made the crucial breakthroughs, to CERN itself, one of the most ambitious scientific undertakings of our time, and its eventual confirmation of the Higgs boson. Weaving together the scientific and political stories of CERN’s development, the book reveals how particle physics has evolved from being the realm of solitary genius to a global field of human endeavour, with CERN’s Large Hadron Collider as its frontier research tool.